IUCN   ::   Species Survival Commission     ::     Chelonian Research Foundation    ::    Turtle Conservation Fund      ::      Turtle Conservancy     ::      Conservation International     ::      Turtle Survival Alliance

LITERATURE CITED


 Turtles of the World: Taxonomy and Synonymy


BIBLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography is divided into two sections:

(1) All primary taxonomic citations for modern turtles noted in all our checklists (TTWG 2007b, 2009, 2010; Rhodin et al. 2008), including all descriptions of new species, subspecies, and genera, replacement names (nomina nova) for all taxa and genera, and cited suprageneric names.

(2) Additional literature cited in the introductions and annotations to all our checklists, including taxonomic revisions and related publications that do not contain primary taxonomic citations.

Links to downloadable pdf's will be gradually included as available. These are strictly for personal non-commercial research and educational use only, for the benefit of individual turtle researchers, conservationists, and students, and especially for members of the IUCN Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. For references with missing pdf's we request that they be sent to us for inclusion here if they are available. Please contact [email protected] to submit pdf's.

 

 

 (1)  PRIMARY TAXONOMIC LITERATURE 
FROM ALL OUR CHECKLISTS

Adler, K.K. 1962. A new name for a Chinese turtle, genus Clemmys. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 20(2):135.

 

Agassiz, L. 1846. Nomenclatoris Zoologici Index Universalis. Solothurn: Jent and Gassmann, 393 pp.

Agassiz, L. 1857. Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. First Monograph. Vol. I. Part I. Essay on Classification. Part II. North American Testudinata. Vol. II. Part III. Embryology of the Turtle. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., Vol. I, pp. 1–452, Vol. II, pp. 453–643.

Ahl, E. 1932. Beschreibung einer neuen Schildkröte aus Australien. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1932(1/3):127–129.

Anderson, J. 1875. Description of some new Asiatic mammals and Chelonia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)16:282–285.

Anderson, J. 1879 [“1878”]. Anatomical and Zoological Researches, Comprising an Account of the Zoological Results of the Two Expeditions to Western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875. London: Bernard Quaritch, Vol. I, 985 pp., Vol. II, 29 pp. + pls.

Annandale, N. 1906. Testudo baluchiorum, a new species. Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal n.s. 2(3):75–76.

Annandale, N. 1912a. The Indian mud–turtles (Trionychidae). Records of the Indian Museum 7(2):151–180.

Annandale, N. 1912b. The aquatic chelonia of the Mahanaddi and its tributaries. Records of the Indian Museum 7(3):261–266.

Annandale, N. 1913. The tortoises of Chota Nagpur. Records of the Indian Museum 9(5):63–78.

Annandale, N. 1915a. Notes on some Indian Chelonia. Records of the Indian Museum 11(11):189–195.

Annandale, N. 1915b. Herpetological notes and descriptions. Records of the Indian Museum 11(19):341–347.

Annandale, N. 1918. Chelonia and Batrachia of the Inlé Lake. Records of the Indian Museum 14:67–69.

Antenbrink-Vetter, S. and Vetter, H. 1998. Neuer Name für altbekannte Schildkröten. Schildkröten II/98:3–5.

Babcock, H.L. 1937. A new subspecies of the red-bellied terrapin Pseudemys rubriventris (LeConte). Occasional Papers of the Boston Society for Natural History 8:293.

Baird, S.F. and Girard, C. 1852. Descriptions of new species of reptiles, collected by the U.S. Exploring Expedition under the command of Capt. Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. First Part.—Including the species from the western coast of America. Proceedings of the Acadademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1852:174–177.

Barbour, T. 1935. A new Pseudemys from Cat Island, Bahamas. Occasional Papers Boston Society of Natural History 8:205–206.

Barbour, T. and Carr, A.F., Jr. 1938. Another Bahamian fresh-water tortoise. Proceedings of the New England Zoology Club 17:75–76.

Barbour, T. and Carr, A.F., Jr. 1940. Antillean terrapins. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 54(5):381–415.

Barbour, T. and Carr, A.F., Jr. 1941. Terrapin from Grand Cayman. Proceedings of the New England Zoology Club 18:57–60.

Bartlett, E. 1895a. Notes on the chelonians, tortoises, and turtles found in Borneo and the adjacent islands. [2]. Sarawak Gazette, 1 Feb 1895:29–30.

Bartlett, E. 1895b. The ethnological, zoological and botanical note-book of Sarawak, being notes reprinted from the “Sarawak Gazette”, 1894-95. Volume 1. Anching, Sarawak: Government Printing Office.

Bartlett, E. 1896. The ethnological, zoological and botanical note-book of Sarawak, being notes reprinted from the “Sarawak Gazette”, 1894-95. Volume 2. Anching, Sarawak: Government Printing Office.

Batsch, A.J.G.C. 1788. Versuch einer Anleitung zur Kenntniss und Geschichte der Thiere und Mineralien. Erster Theil. Allgemeine Geschichte der Natur; besondre der Säugthiere, Vögel, Amphibien und Fische. Jena: Akademischen Buchhandlung, 528 pp.

Batsch, A.J.G.C. 1796. Umriss der gesammten Naturgeschichte. Jena: Christian Ernst Gabler, Vol. 1, 288 pp.

Baur, G. 1888a. Osteologische Notizen uber Reptilien. Fortsetzung III. Zoologischer Anzeiger 11(285):417–424.

Baur, G. 1888b. Osteologische Notizen uber Reptilien. Fortsetzung IV. Zoologischer Anzeiger 11(291):591–597.

Baur, G. 1888c. Notes on the American Trionychidae. American Naturalist 22:1121–1122.

Baur, G. 1889. The gigantic land tortoises of the Galapagos Islands. American Naturalist 23(276):1039–1057.

Baur, G. 1890a. Two new species of tortoises from the south. Science 16:262–263.

Baur, G. 1890b. An apparently new species of Chelys. American Naturalist 24:967–968.

Baur, G. 1891. The very peculiar tortoise, Carettochelys Ramsay, from New Guinea. Science 17:190.

Baur, G. 1893a. Notes on the classification and taxonomy of the Testudinata. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 31:210–225.

Baur, G. 1893b. Notes on the classification of the Cryptodira. American Naturalist 27:672–674.

Baur, G. 1893c. Two new species of North American Testudinata. American Naturalist 27:675–677.

Baur, G. 1896. Der Schädel einer neuen grossen Schildkröte (Adelochelys) aus dem zoologischen Museum in München. Anatomischer Anzeiger 12:314–319.

Baur, G. 1925. [Kinosternon abaxillare]. In: Stejneger, L. New species and subspecies of American turtles. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 15:462–463.

Bechstein, J.M. 1800. Herrn De la Cepede’s Naturgeschichte der Amphibien oder der eyerlegenden vierfuszigen Thiere und der Schlangen. Erster Band. Weimar: Comptoir, 524 pp.

Bedriaga, J. von. 1881. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Griechenlands. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 56:278–344.

Bell, T. 1825a. A monograph of the tortoises having a moveable sternum, with remarks on their arrangement and affinities. Zoological Journal 2:299–310.

Bell, T. 1825b. [Sternotherus]. In: Gray, J.E. A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and amphibia, with a description of some new species. Annals of Philosophy (2)10:211.

Bell, T. 1826. Description of a new species of Terrapene; with further observations on T. carolina and T. maculata. Zoological Journal 2:484–486.

Bell, T. 1827. On two new genera of land tortoises. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 15:392–401.

Bell, T. 1828a. Descriptions of three new species of land tortoises. Zoological Journal 3:419–421.

Bell, T. 1828b. On Hydraspis, a new genus of freshwater tortoises, of the family Emydidae. Zoological Journal 3(12):511–513.

Bell, T. 1828c. Characters of the order, families, and genera of the Testudinata. Zoological Journal 3(12):513–516.

Bell, T. 1830a. [Emys decussata]. In: Griffith E. and Pidgeon, E. The Class Reptilia arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions. In: Griffith, E. (Ed.). The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with Additional Descriptions of all the Species Hitherto Named, and of many not before Noticed. Vol. 9. Reptilia. London: Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., pp. 76, pl. [Part 25, published Sep 1830].

Bell, T. 1830b. [Chelys (Hydraspis) lata]. In: Gray, J.E. A Synopsis of the Species of the Class Reptilia. In: Griffith E. and Pidgeon, E. The Class Reptilia arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions. In: Griffith, E. (Ed.). The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with Additional Descriptions of all the Species Hitherto Named, and of many not before Noticed. Vol. 9. Reptilia. Supplement. London: Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., p. 17 [Part 26, published Dec 1830].

Bell, T. 1834. Characters of a new genus of freshwater tortoise (Cyclemys). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1834:17.

Bell, T. 1835. [Emys irrigata]. In: Duméril, A.M.C. and Bibron, G. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle des Reptiles. Tome Second. Paris: Roret, pp. 276–279.

Bennett, E.T. 1836. [Testudo whitei]. In: White, G. The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne. London: J. and A. Arch, 640 pp. [p. 361].

Berry, J.F. and Iverson, J.B. 1980. A new species of mud turtle, genus Kinosternon, from Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 14(4):313–320.

Berry, J.F. and Legler, J.M. 1980. A new turtle (genus Kinosternon) from northwestern Mexico. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County  325:1–12.

Berry, J.F., Seidel, M.E., and Iverson, J.B. 1996. [Kinosternon chimalhuaca]. In: Rogner, M. Schildkröten 2. Hürtgenwald: Heidi-Rogner-Verlag, pp. 23–24.

Bibron, G. and Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B. 1832. Vertébrés à sang froid. Reptiles et poissons. In: Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (Ed.). Expédition Scientifique de Morée, Vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 1–209.

Bibron, G. and Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B. 1833. Vertébrés à sang froid. Reptiles et poissons. In: Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (Ed.). Expédition Scientifique de Morée, Vol. 3, Part 1, Atlas, pl. 9.

Blainville, H. de 1816. Prodrome d’une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal. Bulletin des Sciences par la Société Philomatique de Paris 1816:105–112, 121–124.

Blanck, T., McCord, W.P., and Le, M. 2006. On the variability of Cuora trifasciata (Bell, 1825); the rediscovery of the type specimen, with descriptions of a new Cuora species and subspecies, and remarks on the distribution, habitat and vulnerability of these species (Reptilia: Testudines: Geoemydidae). Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira, 153 pp.

Blanford, W.T. 1870. Notes on some Reptilia and Amphibia from central India. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 39:335–376.

Blumenbach, J.F. 1779. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. Ed. 1. Part 1. Göttingen: J.C. Dieterich, 448 pp.

Blyth, E. 1853. Notices and descriptions of various reptiles, new or little known. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 22:639–655.

Blyth, E. 1856. Notabilia contained in the collections presented by Capt. Berdmore and Mr. Theobald. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 24:713–723.

Blyth, E. 1859. Proceedings of the Society. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 27:281.

Blyth, E. 1863. A collection of sundries from different parts of Burma. Report on the collections presented by Capt. Berdmore and Mr. Theobald. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 32:78–90.

Bocourt, M.F. 1868. Description de quelques chéloniens nouveaux appartenant a la faune Mexicaine. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie et Paléontologie, Paris (5)10:121–122.

Bocourt, M.F. 1876a. [Emys grayi, Dum. and Bocourt, altered to Emys umbra]. Journal of Zoology (Paris) 5:26.

Bocourt, M.F. 1876b. Note sur quelques reptiles de l’Isthme de Tehuantepec (Mexique) donnés par M. Sumichrast au Museum. Journal of Zoology (Paris) 5:386–411.

Boddaert, P. 1770. Brief van de kraakbeenige schildpad. Epistola de testudine cartilaginea. Amsterdam: Kornelis van Tongerlo, 39 pp.

Bodenheimer, F.S. 1935. Animal Life in Palestine. Jerusalem: 235 pp.

Boettger, O. 1893. Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt-am-Main. I. Teil (Rhynchocephalen, Schildkröten, Krokodile, Eidechsen, Chamäleons). Frankfurt: Knauer, 160 pp.

Boettger, O. 1894. Materialien zur herpetologischen Fauna von China III. Bericht über die Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frankfurt 25:129–152.

Bogert, C.M. 1943. A new box turtle from southeastern Sonora, Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1226:1–7.

Bohls, J. 1895. Bemerkung zur Eintheilung der Chelydidae. Zoologischer Anzeiger 18:51–53.

Bonaparte, C.L. 1832. Versuch einer methodischen Eintheilung der Wirbelthiere. Isis von Oken 25:283–320.

Bonaparte, C.L. 1836. Cheloniorum Tabula Analytica. Rome: 9 pp.

Bonnaterre, P.J. 1789. Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique des Trois Règnes de la Nature. Erpétologie. Paris: Panckoucke, Hôtel de Thou, 70 pp.

Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B. 1804. Voyage dans les Quatre Principales Îles des Mers d’Afrique. Paris, Vol. 2, p. 308, Atlas, pl. 36.

Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B. 1833. Vertébrés à sang froid. Reptiles et poissons. In: Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (Ed.). Expédition Scientifique de Morée, Vol. 3, Part 1, Atlas, pl. 6.

Boulenger, G.A. 1886a. On the South-African tortoises allied to Testudo geometrica. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1886:540–542.

Boulenger, G.A. 1886b. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the Province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5)18:423–445.

Boulenger, G.A. 1887. On a new family of pleurodiran turtles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5)19:170–172.

Boulenger, G.A. 1888a. Description of a new land-tortoise from South Africa, from a specimen living in the Society’s Gardens. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888:251.

Boulenger, G.A. 1888b. On the chelydoid chelonians of New Guinea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (2)6:449–452.

Boulenger, G.A. 1889. Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). London: Trustees of the Museum, 311 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. 1891. On the skull of an extinct land-tortoise from Mauritius indicating a new species (Testudo microtympanum). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891:4–5.

Boulenger, G.A. 1895a. Esplorazione del Giuba e dei suoi affluenti compiuta dal Cap. V. Bottego durante gli anni 1892–93 sotto gli auspicii della Societa Geographica Italiana. Risultati zoologici. Rettili e Batraci. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (2)15:9–18.

Boulenger, G.A. 1895b. On the American box turtles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6)15:330–331.

Boulenger, G.A. 1897a. Description of a new genus and species of tortoise from Borneo. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6)19:468–469.

Boulenger, G.A. 1897b. Description of a new tortoise of the genus Sternothaerus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1897:919.

Boulenger, G.A. 1902a. Descriptions of new batrachians and reptiles from northwestern Ecuador. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7)9:51–57.

Boulenger, G.A. 1902b. A list of the fishes, batrachians, and reptiles collected by Mr. J. Folliott Darling in Mashonaland, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 2:13–18.

Boulenger, G.A. 1903a. Report on the batrachians and reptiles. In: Annandale, N. and Robinson, H.C. (Eds.). Fasciculi Malayenses: Anthropological and Zoological Results of an Expedition to Perak and the Siamese Malay States, 1901–1902. Zoology. Liverpool: University Press, pp. 131–170.

Boulenger, G.A. 1903b. On a collection of batrachians and reptiles from the interior of Cape Colony. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7)12:215–217.

Boulenger, G.A. 1906. Descriptions of new reptiles from Yunnan. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7)17:567–568.

Boulenger, G.A. 1907. A new tortoise from Travancore. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 17:560–564.

Boulenger, G.A. 1913. On a collection of batrachians and reptiles made by Dr. H. G. F. Spurrell, F.Z.S., in the Choco, Colombia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913(4):1019–1038.

Boulenger, G.A. 1920. Une tortue extraordinaire: Testudo loveridgii, sp.n. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris 170:263–266.

Boulenger, G.A. 1921. Description of a new land tortoise from northern Persia. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 27:251–252.

Bour, R. 1973. Contribution à la connaissance de Phrynops nasutus (Schweigger: 1812) et Phrynops tuberculatus (Luederwaldt: 1926). Description d’une nouvelle sous-espèce originaire du Paraguay, Phrynops tuberculatus vanderhaegei (Testudinata – Pleurodira – Chelidae). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 98(1):175–190.

Bour, R. 1978. Les tortues des Mascareignes; description d’une espèce nouvelle d’après un document (Mémoires de l’Académie) de 1737 dans lequel le crâne est figuré. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences 287D:491–493.

Bour, R. 1979. Les tortues actuelles de Madagascar (République malgache): liste systématique et description de deux sous–espèces nouvelles (Reptilia–Testudines). Bulletin de la Société d’Etudes Scientifiques de l’Anjou n.s. 10(1978)[1979]:141–154.

Bour, R. 1982. Contribution à la connaisance des tortues terrestres des Seychelles: définition du genre endémiqueet description d’une espéce nouvelle probablement originaire des îles grantiques et bord de l’extinction. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences 295:117–122.

Bour, R. 1983. Trois populations endémiques du genre Pelusios (Reptilia, Chelonii, Pelomedusidae) aux îles Seychelles; relations avec les espèces africaines et malgaches. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (4)5A:343–382.

Bour, R. 1984. Note sur Pelusios williamsi Laurent, 1965 (Chelonii, Pelomedusinae). Revue Français Aquariologie 11:27–32.

Bour, R. 1986. Note sur Pelusios adansonii (Schweigger, 1812) et sur une nouvelle espèce affine du Kenya (Chelonii, Pelomedusidae). Studia Palaeocheloniologica 2:23–54.

Bour, R. 1996. Une nouvelle espèce de tortue terrestre dans le Péloponnèse (Grèce). Dumerilia 2(1995)[1996]:23–54.

Bour, R. 2000. Une nouvelle espèce de Pelusios du Gabon (Reptilia, Chelonii, Pelomedusidae). Manouria 3(8):1–32.

Bour, R. and Maran, J. 1999. Taxinomie de Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger, 1812) dans le sud du Maroc: la “tortue aux yeux bleus” (Reptilia, Chelonii, Geoemydidae). Manouria 1(2)(1998)[1999]:22–52.

Bour, R. and Maran, J. 2003. Une nouvelle espèce de Pelusios de Côte d’Ivoire (Reptilia, Chelonii, Pelomedusidae). Manouria 6(21):24–43.

Bour, R. and Zaher, H. 2005. A new species of Mesoclemmys, from the open formations of northeastern Brazil (Chelonii, Chelidae). Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 45:295–311.

Bourret, R. 1939a. Notes herpetologiques sur l’Indochine française. XVI. Tortues de la collection du Laboratoire des Sciences Naturelles de l’Universite. Description d’une espece nouvelle. Annexe du Bulletin Générale d’Instruction Publique 1939:1–34.

Bourret, R. 1939b. Notes herpetologiques sur l’Indochine française. XVIII. Reptiles et batraciens recus au Laboratoire des Sciences Naturelles de l’Université au cours de l’année 1939. Descriptions de quatre espéces et d’une variété nouvelles. Annexe du Bulletin Générale d’Instruction Publique 1939:1–40.

Bourret, R. 1941. Notes herpetologiques sur l’Indochine française. XXI. Reptiles et batraciens recus au Laboratoire des Sciences Naturelles de l’Universite au cours de l’année 1940. Description d’une espéce fossile nouvelle. Annexe du Bulletin Générale d’Instruction Publique 1941:1–16.

Bramble, D.M. 1982. Scaptochelys: generic revision and evolution of gopher tortoises. Copeia 1982(4):852–867.

Branch, W.R. 2007. A new species of tortoise of the genus Homopus (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from southern Namibia. African Journal of Herpetology 56:1–21.

Brandt, J.F. 1857. Observationes quadam ad generis Trionychum species duas novas spectantes. Bulletin de la Classe Physico-mathématique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 16:110–111.

Brimley, C.S. 1928. Two new terrapins of the genus Pseudemys from the southern states. Journal of theElisha Mitchell Science Society 44:66–69.

Broadley, D.G. 1981. A review of the genus Pelusios Wagler in southern Africa (Pleurodira: Pelomedusidae). Occasional Papers of the National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, B. Natural Sciences 6(9):633–686.

Brongniart, A. 1800. Essai d’une classification naturelle des reptiles. Première partie. Magasin Encyclopédique, ou Journal des Sciences, des Lettres et des Arts (5)6[An 8]:184–201.

Brongniart, A. 1805. Essai d’une classification naturelle des reptiles, avec la description et la figure de plusieurs espèces. Paris: Baudouin, Imprimeur de l’Institut National, 53 pp.

Bruguière, J.G. 1792. Description d’une nouvelle espèce de tortue de Cayenne. Journal d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 1(7):253–261.

Burmeister, C.H.C. 1837. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. I. Mineralogie und Botanik. II. Zoologie. Berlin: 858 pp.

Cagle, F.R. 1953. Two new subspecies of Graptemys pseudogeographica. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan 546:1–17.

Cagle, F.R. 1954. Two new species of the genus Graptemys. Tulane Studies in Zoology 1:167–186.

Caldwell, D.K. 1962. Sea turtles in Baja California waters (with special reference to those of the Gulf of California), and the description of a new subspecies of northeastern Pacific green turtle. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 61:1–31.

Calinescu, R. 1931. Contributini sistematica si Zoogeografica la studini Amphibidor si Reptilidor din Romania. Memoriile Sectiilor Stiintifice, Academia Romana 3(7):119–291. [in Romanian]

Cann, J. 1997a. Georges short-necked turtle. Monitor (Journal of theVictorian Herpetological Society) 9(1):18–23, 31–32.

Cann, J. 1997b. The northern yellow-faced turtle. Monitor (Journal of theVictorian Herpetological Society) 9(1):24–35.

Cann, J. 1997c. Irwin’s turtle. Monitor (Journal of theVictorian Herpetological Society) 9(1):36–40, 31–32.

Cann, J. 1997d. Kuchling’s turtle. Monitor (Journal of theVictorian Herpetological Society) 9(1):41–44, 32.

Cann, J. 1998. Australian Freshwater Turtles. Singapore: Beaumont Publications, 292 pp.

Cann, J. and Legler, J.M. 1994. The Mary River tortoise: a new genus and species of short-necked chelid from Queensland, Australia (Testudines; Pleurodira). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(2):81–96.

Cann, J., McCord, W.P., and Joseph-Ouni, M. 2003. [Emydura macquarii emmotti ssp. nov.] In: McCord, W.P., Cann, J., and Joseph-Ouni, M. A taxonomic assessment of Emydura (Testudines: Chelidae) with descriptions of new subspecies from Queensland, Australia. Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 27:60–61.

Cantor, T. 1842. General features of Chusan, with remarks on the flora and fauna of that island. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (1)9:265–278, 361–370, 481–493.

Cantor, T. 1847. Catalogue of reptiles inhabiting the Malayan peninsula and islands. Journal of theAsiatic Society of Bengal 16:607–656, 897–952, 1026–1078.

Carr, A.F., Jr. 1937. A new turtle from Florida, with notes on Pseudemys floridana mobiliensis (Holbrook). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan 348:1–7.

Carr, A.F., Jr. 1938a. Pseudemys nelsoni, a new turtle from Florida. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 8:305–310.

Carr, A.F., Jr. 1938b. A new subspecies of Pseudemys floridana with notes on the floridana complex. Copeia 1938(3):105–109.

Carr, A.F., Jr. 1942. A new Pseudemys from Sonora, Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1181:1–4.

Carr, A.F., Jr. and Marchand, L.J. 1942. A new turtle from the Chipola River, Florida. Proceedings of the New England Zoology Club 20:95–100.

Catesby, M. 1771. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and Bahama Islands. Folio 2. Edited by G. Edwards. London.

Chang, M.L. 1957. [Testudoformes]. Science (Ko-xue) (China) 33(1):50.

Chang, T.H. 1929. Notes on an apparently new or rarely known hard-shelled turtle from Fuchow. Contributions of the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China, Nanking 5(1):1–5.

Chkhikvadze, V.M. 1970. [On the origin of the modern Palaearctic land tortoises]. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR [Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of Georgia] 57(1):245–247. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M. 1988. O sistematicheskom polozhenii sobremennykh sukhoputnykh cherepakh srednei Azii i Kazakhstana. [Taxonomic status of modern land tortoise of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan]. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR  [Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of Georgia] 14(2):110–114. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M. 2008. [Agrionemys bogdanovi]. In: Chkhikvadze, V.M., Brushko, Z.K., and Kubykin, R.A. ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? (Testudinidae: Agrionemys) ? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ???????. [A brief overview of the systematics of the Central Asian tortoise (Testudinidae: Agrionemys) and mobile shell zone in this group of turtles]. Selevinia (Almaty) 2008:100–104. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M. 2009. C????????????a? ????????a ? ????????. [Central Asiatic tortoises in Mongolia]. Problems of Desert Development (Ashgabat) 2009(3/4):60–63. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M. and Bakradze, M.A. 1991. [On the systematic position of the Recent land turtle from the Araxes Valley]. Trudy Tbilisskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universitet Tbilisi [Proceedings of Tbilisi University] 305:59–63. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M. and Bakradze, M.A. 2002. Novyi podvid sukhoputnoi cherepakhi iz Dagestana. [New tortoise subspecies from Dagestan]. Trudy Instituta Zoologii Akademia Nauk Gruzii [Proceedings of the Zoology Institute of the Georgia Academy of Sciences] 21:276–279. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M. and Tuniyev, B.S. 1986. [On the taxonomic status of modern land tortoise of the western Transcaucasus]. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR [Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of Georgia] 124(3):617–620. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M., Amiranashvili, N.G., and Ataev, C.A. 1990. Noviy podvid sukhoputnoi cherepakhi iz yugo–zapadnovo Turkmenistana. [A new subspecies of tortoise from southwestern Turkmenistan]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Seriya Biologicheskie Nauki 1:72–75. [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V.M., Ataev, C.A., Shammakov, S., and Zatoka, A.L. 2009. [Agrionemys kazachstanica kuznetzovi]. In: Chkhikvadze, V.M., Ataev, C.A., and Shammakov, S. [New taxons of Central Asian tortoises (Testudinidae: Agrionemys bogdanovi and A. kazachstanica kuznetzovi)]. Problems of Desert Development (Ashgabat) 2009(1/2):49–54. [in Russian]

Cocteau, J.T. 1838. [Caouana]. In: Cocteau, J.T. and Bibron, G. Reptilia. In: Sagra, D. Ramon de la. Historia fisica, politica y natural de la Isla de Cuba. Vol. 4. Reptiles y Peces; pp. 1–143.

Cocteau, J.T. and Bibron, G. 1838. Reptilia. In: Sagra, D. Ramon de la. Historia fisica, politica y natural de la Isla de Cuba. Vol. 4. Reptiles y Peces; pp. 1–143.

Conant, R. and Goin, C.J. 1948. A new subspecies of soft-shelled turtle from the central United States, with comments on the application of the name Amyda. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 510:1–19.

Cooper, J.G. 1861. New Californian animals. Proceedings of the California Acadademy of Sciences, San Francisco 2:118–123.

Cope, E.D. 1860. Notes and descriptions of foreign reptiles. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 11:294–297.

Cope, E.D. 1864. On the limits and relations of the Raniformes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16:181–183.

Cope, E.D. 1865. Third contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 17:185–198.

Cope, E.D. 1868a. An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton expedition to Equador and the upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 20:96–140.

Cope, E.D. 1868b. On the origin of genera. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 20:242–300.

Cope, E.D. 1870a. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 11(1869)[1870]:147–169.

Cope, E.D. 1870b. Synopsis of the extinct Batrachia, Reptilia and Aves of North America. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 14(1869)[1870]:1–252.

Cope, E.D. 1871. On the homologies of some of the cranial bones of the Reptilia, and on the systematic arrangement of the class. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 1870(19)[1871]:194–247.

Cope, E.D. 1872. Synopsis of the species of the Chelydrinae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1872:22–29.

Cope, E.D. 1876. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (2)8(4)1875[1876]:93–154.

Cope, E.D. 1885. A contribution to the herpetology of Mexico. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 22:379–404.

Cope, E.D. 1887. Catalogue of Batrachia and Reptilia of Central America and Mexico. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum 32:1–98.

Cope, E.D. 1895. Taylor on box turtles. American Naturalist 29:756–757.

Cornalia, E. 1849. Vertebratorum Synopsis in Museo Mediolanense Extantium. Modoetia: Corbetta, 16 pp.

Coutinho, J.M. da S. 1868. Sur les tortues de l’Amazone. Bulletin de la Société Impériale Zoologique d’Acclimatation (2)5:147–166.

Cragin, F.W. 1894. Herpetological notes from Kansas and Texas. Colorado College Studies 5:37–39.

Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. 1816. Le Règne Animal Distribué d’après son Organisation, pour servir de base à l’histoire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction à l’anatomie comparée. Edition 1. Tome II. Paris: Deterville, 532 pp.

Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. 1825. Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles, ou l’on rétablit les caractères de plusieurs animaux dont les révolutions du globe ont détruit les espèces. Edition  2. Paris: Dufour et d’Ocagne, 5(2):1–547.

Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. 1829. Le Règne Animal Distribué d’après son Organisation. Nouvelle Edition [Edition 2], Revue et Augmente. Paris: Deterville, Tome II, 405 pp.

da Cunha, O.R. 1970. Uma nova subespécie de quelônio, Kinosternon scorpioides carajasensis da Serra dos Carajás, Pará. Boletin do Museo Paraense Emilio Goeldi (73):1–11.

Daudin, F.M. 1801. Histoire Naturelle, Génerale et Particulière des Reptiles. Tome Second. Paris: Imprimerie F. Dufart, 432 pp.

Daudin, F.M. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles. Tome Quatrième. Paris: Imprimerie F. Dufart, 397 pp.

De Sola, C.R. 1930. The Liebespiel of Testudo vandenburghi, a new name for the mid-Albemarle Island Galapagos tortoise. Copeia 1930(3):79–80.

Deraniyagala, P.E.P. 1933. The loggerhead turtles (Carettidae) of Ceylon. Ceylon Journal of Science 18B:59–70.

Deraniyagala, P.E.P. 1939. The Tetrapod Reptiles of Ceylon. Volume 1. Testudinates and Crocodilians. London: Dulau Co., 412 pp.

Deraniyagala, P.E.P. 1948. Some scientific results of two visits to Africa. Spolia Zeylanica 25(2):1–42.

Diesmos, A.C., Parham, J.F., Stuart, B.L., and Brown, R. 2005. The phylogenetic position of the recently rediscovered Philippine forest turtle (Bataguridae: Heosemys leytensis). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56:31–41.

Dollo, L. 1886. Première note sur les chéloniens du Bruxellien (Eocène moyen) de la Belgique. Bulletin du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 4:75–96.

Donndorff, J.A. 1798. Zoologische Beyträge zur XIII. Ausgabe des Linneischen Natursystems. Dritter Band. Amphibien und Fische. Leipzig: Weidmannschen Buchhandlung, 980 pp.

Duerden, J.E. 1906. South African tortoises of the genus Homopus, with description of a new species. Records of the Albany Museum 1:405–411.

Dugés, A.A.D. 1888. Erpetologia del Valle de Mexico. Naturaleza (2)1:97–146.

Duméril, A.H.A. 1852. Description des reptiles nouveaux ou imparfaitment connus de la collection du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les caracteres des reptiles. Premiere Memoire. Ordre des cheloniens et premieres familles de l’ordre des sauriens (crocodiliens et cameleoniens). Archives du Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 6:209–264.

Duméril, A.H.A. 1856. Note sur les reptiles du Gabon. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée, Paris (2)8:369–377, 417–424.

Duméril, A.H.A. and Bocourt, M.F. 1870. Observations sur les reptiles et les batraciens de la Region Centrale de l’Amerique. In: Dumeril, A., M. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l’Amerique Centrale. Recherches zoologiques. Troisieme Partie. Premiere Section. Etudes sur les reptiles, pp.1–32.

Duméril, A.M.C. 1805 [“1806”]. Zoologie Analytique, ou Méthode Naturelle de Classification des Animaux. Paris: Perronneau, 344 pp. [Published Nov 1805].

Duméril, A.M.C. and Bibron, G. 1834. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Tome Premier. Paris: Roret, 439 pp.

Duméril, A.M.C. and Bibron, G. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Tome Second. Paris: Roret, 680 pp.

Duméril, A.M.C. and Bibron, G. 1851. [Emys areolata, Emys berardii, Cinosternon leucostomum, Cinosternon cruentatum]. In: Duméril, A.M.C. and Duméril, A.H.A. Catalogue Methodique de la Collection des Reptiles (Museum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris). Paris: Gide and Baudry, 224 pp.

Duméril, A.M.C. and Duméril, A.H.A. 1851. Catalogue Methodique de la Collection des Reptiles (Museum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris). Paris: Gide and Baudry, 224 pp.

Dunn, E.R. 1917. Reptile and amphibian collections from the North Carolina mountains, with especial reference to salamanders. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 37:593–634.

Dunn, E.R. 1930. A new Geoemyda from Costa Rica. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 12:31–34.

Dürigen, B. 1897. Deutschlands Amphibien und Reptilien. Magdeburg: Creutz, 676 pp.

Eichwald, C.E. von. 1831. Zoologia Specialis quam Expositis Animalibus. Pars Posterior. Vilna: J. Zawadzki, 404 pp.

Ennen, J.R., Lovich, J.E., Kreiser, B.R., Selman, W., and Qualls, C.P. 2010. Genetic and morphological variation between populations of the Pascagoula Map Turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) in the Pearl and Pascagoula rivers with description of a new species. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 9(1):98–113.

Ernst, C.H. 1978. A revision of the neotropical turtle genus Callopsis (Testudines: Emydidae: Batagurinae). Herpetologica 34(2):113–134.

Ernst, C.H. 1984. Geographic variation in the neotropical turtle, Platemys platycephala. Journal of Herpetology 17(4)(1983)[1984]:345–355.

Ernst, C.H. 1988. Cuora mccordi, a new Chinese box turtle from Guangxi Province. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 101:466–470.

Ernst, C.H. and Lovich, J.E. 1990. A new species of Cuora (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae) from the Ryukyu Islands. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 103:26–34.

Ernst, C.H. and McCord, W.P. 1987. Two new turtles from southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100:624–628.

Eschscholtz, J.F. von. 1829. Zoologischer Atlas, enthaltend Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neuer Thierarten, während des Flottcapitains von Kotzebue zweiter Reise um die Welt, auf Russich–Kaiserlich Kreigsschupp Predpriaetë in den Jahren 1823–1826. Berlin: G. Reimer, Part I, pp.17+15.

Fan, T.H. 1931. Preliminary report of reptiles from Yaoshan, Kwangsi, China. Bulletin of the Department of Biology, College of Science, Sun Yatsen University 11:1–154.

Fang, P.W. 1934. Notes on some chelonians of China. Sinensia 4(7):145–200.

Fermin, P. 1765. Histoire Naturelle de la Hollande Equinoxiale, ou Déscription des Animaux, Plantes, Fruits, et Autres Curiosités Naturelles, qui se Trouvent dans la Colonie de Surinam. Amsterdam: M. Magerus, 240 pp.

Ferreira, J.B. 1897. Sobre alguns reptis ultimamente enviados a seccao zoologica do Museu de Lisboa. Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa (2)5(18):111–116.

Fischer, J. von. 1872. Staurotypus marmoratus n. sp. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 38(1):265–272.

Fitzinger, L.J. 1826. Neue Classification der Reptilien, nach ihren Natürlichen Verwandtschaften nebst einer Verwandtschafts–Tafel und einem Verzeichnisse der Reptilien–Sammlung des k.k. Zoologischen Museum zu Wien. Wien: J.G. Hübner Verlagen, 66 pp.

Fitzinger, L.J. 1835. Entwurf einer systematischen Anordnung der Schildkröten nach den Grundsätzen der natürlichen Methode. Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte  1:105–128.

Fitzinger, L.J. 1843. Systema Reptilium. Fasciculus Primus: Amblyglossae. Vindobonae: Braumuller und Seidel, 106 pp.

FitzSimons, V.F.M. 1932. Preliminary descriptions of new forms of South African Reptilia and Amphibia, from the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, 1930. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 15:35–40.

FitzSimons, V.F.M. 1938. Transvaal Museum Expedition to South-West Africa and Little Namaqualand, May to August 1937. Reptiles and Batrachians. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 19:153–209.

Fleming, J. 1822. The Philosophy of Zoology; or a General View of the Structure, Functions, and Classification of Animals. Vol. II. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Co., 618 pp.

Fleming, J. 1828. A History of British Animals. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Co., 568 pp.

Folkerts, G.W. and Mount, R.H. 1969. A new subspecies of the turtle Graptemys nigrinoda Cagle. Copeia 1969(4):677–682.

Forskål, P. 1775. Descriptiones Animalium: Avium, Amphibiorum, Piscium, Insectorum, Vermium; quae in Itinere Orientali Observavit. Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. Hauniae [Copenhagen]: Mölleri, 164 pp.

Fowler, H.W. 1906. Some cold–blooded vertebrates of the Florida Keys. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 58:77–113.

Freiberg, M.A. 1936. Una nueva tortuga del norte Argentino. Physis 12:169–171.

Freiberg, M.A. 1945. Una nueva especie de tortuga del genero Platemys Wagler. Physis 20:19–23.

Freiberg, M.A. 1969. Una nueva subespecie de Pseudemys dorbignyi (Dumeril et Bibron) (Reptilia, Chelonia, Emydidae). Physis 28:299–314.

Freiberg, M.A. 1973. Dos nuevas tortugas terrestres de Argentina. Boletin de la Sociedad de Biología de Concepción 46:81–93.

Fritz, U. 1989. Zur innerartlichen Variabilität von Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). 1. Eine neue Unterart der Europäischen Sumpfschildkröte aus Kleinasien Emys orbicularis luteofusca subsp. nov. Salamandra 25(3/4):143–168.

Fritz, U. 1993. Zur innerartlichen Variabilität von Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). 3. Zwei neue Unterarten von der Iberischen Halbinsel und aus Nordafrika, Emys orbicularis fritzjuergenobsti subsp. nov. und E. o. occidentalis subsp. nov. (Reptilia, Testudines: Emydidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 47(11):131–155.

Fritz, U. 1994. Zur innerartlichen Variabilität von Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). 4. Variabilität und Zoogeographie im pontokaspischen Gebiet mit Beschreibung von drei neuen Unterarten (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 48(4):53–93.

Fritz, U. 1995. Zur innerartlichen Variabilität von Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). 5a. Taxonomie in Mittel–Westeuropa, auf Korsika, Sardinien, der Apenninen–Halbinsel und Sizilien und Unterartengrupppen von E. orbicularis (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 48(13):185–242.

Fritz, U. and Pauler, I. 1992. Phrynops chacoensis spec. nov. (Reptilia, Chelidae), eine neue Krötenkopfschildkröte. Mitteilung des Zoologischen Museums Berlin 68(2):299–307.

Fritz, U. and Wischuf, T. 1997. Zur Systematik westasiatisch–südosteuropäischer Bachschildkröten (Gattung Mauremys) (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 49(13):223–260.

Fritz, U., Andreas, B., and Lehr, E. 1998. Eine neue Unterart der Dreikiel–Scharnierschildkröte, Pyxidea mouhotii (Gray, 1862) (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 50(3):33–43.

Fritz, U., Baran, I., Budak, A., and Amthauer, E. 1998. Some notes on the morphology of Emys orbicularis in Anatolia, especially on E. o. luteofusca and E. o. colchica, with the description of a new subspecies from southeastern Turkey. In: Fritz, U., Joger, U., Podloucky, R., and Servan, J. (Eds.). Proceedings of the EMYS Symposium Dresden 96. Mertensiella 10:103–122.

Fritz, U., Fattizzo, T., Guicking, D., Tripepi, S., Pennisi, M.G., Lenk, P., Joger, U., and Wink, M. 2005. A new cryptic species of pond turtle from southern Italy, the hottest spot in the range of the genus Emys (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae). Zoologica Scripta 34(4):351–371.

Fritz, U., Gaulke, M., and Lehr, E. 1997. Revision der südostasiatischen Dornschildkröten-Gattung Cyclemys Bell, 1834, mit Beschreibung einer neuen Art. Salamandra 33(3):183–212.

Fritz, U., Guicking, D., Auer, M., Sommer, R.S., Wink, M., and Hundsdörfer, A.K. 2008. Diversity of the Southeast Asian leaf turtle genus Cyclemys: how many leaves on its tree of life? Zoologica Scripta 37:367–390.

Fritz, U., Keller, C., and Budde, M. 1996. Eine neue Unterart der Europäischen Sumpfschildkröte aus Südwestspanien, Emys orbicularis hispanica subsp. nov. Salamandra 32(3):129–152.

Fry, D.B. 1915. On a new Chelodina from Australia, with a key to the genus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 27(4):88–90.

Fry, E. 1850. Remarks on the morphology of the vertebrate skeleton. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1850:15–22.

Gadow, H. 1894. On the remains of some gigantic land-tortoises, and of an extinct lizard, recently discovered in Mauritius. Transaction of the Zoological Society of London 13(8):313–324.

Gaffney, E.S. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the Jurassic turtles Portlandemys and Plesiochelys. American Museum Novitates 2574:1–19.

Gaffney, E.S. and Meylan, P.A. 1988. A phylogeny of turtles. In: Benton, M.J. (Ed.). The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume I: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds. Systematics Association Special Volume 35A:157–219.

Garman, S. 1880. On certain species of Chelonioidae. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 6:123–126.

Garman, S. 1884. Contributions to the natural history of the Bermudas. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum 25:1–353.

Garman, S. 1891. On a tortoise found in Florida and Cuba, Cinosternum baurii. Bulletin of theEssex Institute 23:141–144.

Garman, S. 1917. The Galapagos tortoises. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 30(4):261–296.

Garman, S. 1996. [Geochelone nigra duncanensis]. In: Pritchard, P.C.H. The Galápagos Tortoises: Nomenclatural and Survival Status. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 1, p. 50.

Garsault, F.A.P. de. 1764. Les Figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en médecine, décrits dans la Matière Médicale de Mr. Geoffroy Médecin. Paris: 20 pp., 87 pl.

Geoffroy Saint–Hilaire, E. 1809a. Memoire sur les tortues molles. Nouveau Bulletin du Société Philomatique de Paris 1(22):363–367.

Geoffroy Saint–Hilaire, E. 1809b. Mémoire sur les tortues molles, nouveau genre sous le nom de Trionyx, et sur la formation des carapaces. Annales du Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 14:1–20.

Gervais, P. 1843. Dictionnaire Universal d’Histoire Naturelle. Vol. 3, p. 457.

Giebel, C.G. 1866a. Cistudo anhaltina n. sp. aus der Latdorfer Braunkohle. Zeitschrift der Gesamte Naturwissenschaften 27:1–11.

Giebel, C.G. 1866b. Die Schildkröten der Insel Banka. Zeitschrift der Gesamte Naturwissenschaften 27:11–21.

Gilmore, C.W. 1923. A new fossil turtle, Kinosternon arizonense, from Arizona. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 62:1–8.

Girard, C. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838–1842. Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott and Co. , 496 pp.

Gistel, J. 1848. Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs für höhere Schulen bearbeitet durch Johannes Gistel…mit einem Atlas von 32 Tafeln (darstelland 617 illuminierte Figuren) und mehrern dem Texte eingedruckten Xylographien. Stuttgart: 216 pp.

Gistel, J. 1868. Die Lurche Europas. Ein Beitrag zur Lehre von der geographischen Verbreitung derselben. In: Gistel, J. Blicke in das Leben der Natur und des Menschen. Leipzig: Verlag Ed. Wartig, pp. 144–167.

Glass, B.P. and Hartweg, N. 1951. Kinosternon murrayi, a new musk turtle of the hirtipes group from Texas. Copeia 1951(1):50–52.

Glauert, L. 1923. A new freshwater tortoise from the Murchison River. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 9:53–56.

Glauert, L. 1954. A new swamp tortoise from the Swan River district. Western Australian Naturaist 4:125–127.

Gmelin, J.F. 1789. Caroli a Linné, Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 13. Tom. I. Pars III. Leipzig: G.E. Beer, Ed. 13, 1(3):1033–1516.

Gmelin, S.G. 1774. Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Natur-Reiche Gedruckt bey der Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften. Vol. 3. St. Pétersbourg, 4 Vols.

Göldi, E.A. 1886. Ueber eine vermuthlich neue Schildkröte der Gattung Podocnemis vom Rio Negro und über die Chelonier des Amazonas-Gebietes im Allgemeinen. St. Gallische Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft,  Bericht über die Thäligheit 1884–1885[1886]:273–280.

Grandidier, A. 1867. Liste des reptiles nouveaux decouverts, en 1866, sur la cote sud-ouest de Madagascar. Revue et Magazine de Zoologie, Paris (2)19:223–234.

Grandidier, A. 1869. Descriptions d’un Rhinolophe et d’une Tortue de Madagascar. Revue et Magazine de Zoologie, Paris (2)21:257–258.

Gravenhorst, J.L.C. 1829. Deliciae Musei Zoologici Vratislaviensis. Fasciculus primus, continens chelonios et batrachia. Lipsiae: Leopoldi Vossii, 106 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1825. A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and amphibia, with a description of some new species. Annals of Philosophy (2)10:193–217.

Gray, J.E. 1828. Spicilegia Zoologica; or original figures and short systematic descriptions of new and unfigured animals. Part I. London: Richard Taylor, 8 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1830a. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. Vol. I, Part 1, pl. 77. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter. [Published Jan 1830].

Gray, J.E. 1830b. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. Vol. I, Part 2, pl. 72. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter. [Published Mar 1830].

Gray, J.E. 1830c. [Emys occipitatis; Emys ornata]. In: Griffith E. and Pidgeon, E. The Class Reptilia arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions. In: Griffith, E. (Ed.). The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with Additional Descriptions of all the Species Hitherto Named, and of many not before Noticed. Vol. 9. Reptilia. London: Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., pp. 75–76. [Part 25, published Sep 1830].

Gray, J.E. 1830d. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. Vol. I, Part 4, pls. 75, 78. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter. [Published Oct 1830].

Gray, J.E. 1830e. A Synopsis of the Species of the Class Reptilia. In: Griffith E. and Pidgeon, E. The Class Reptilia arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions. In: Griffith, E. (Ed.). The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with Additional Descriptions of all the Species Hitherto Named, and of many not before Noticed. Vol. 9. Reptilia. Supplement. London: Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., 110 pp. [Part 26, published Dec 1830].

Gray, J.E. 1831a. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. Vol. I, Part 5, pl. 74. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter. [Published Jan 1831].

Gray, J.E. 1831b. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. Vol. I, Part 6, pl. 76. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter. [Published Apr 1831].

Gray, J.E. 1831c. A specimen of a tortoise regarded as the type of a new genus in the family Emydidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1831(1):106–107. [Published May 1831].

Gray, J.E. 1831d. Synopsis Reptilium; or Short Descriptions of the Species of Reptiles. Part I.—Cataphracta. Tortoises, Crocodiles, and Enaliosaurians. London: Treuttel, Wurz, and Co., 85 pp. [Published May 1831].

Gray, J.E. 1832. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. Vol. II. London: Adolphus Richter and Co., pls. 102.

Gray, J.E. 1834a. Characters of several new species of freshwater tortoises (Emys) from India and China. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1834:53–54.

Gray, J.E. 1834b. Characters of two new genera of reptiles (Geoemyda and Gehyra). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1834:99–101.

Gray, J.E. 1841. A catalogue of the species of reptiles and amphibia hitherto described as inhabiting Australia, with a description of some new species from Western Australia, and some remarks on their geographical distribution. In: Grey, G. Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in Northwest and Western Australia. London: T. and W. Boone, Vol. 2. Appendix E, pp. 422–449.

Gray, J.E. 1842. Description of some hitherto unrecorded species of Australian reptiles and batrachians. Zoological Miscellany 2:51–57.

Gray, J.E. 1844. Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles, and Amphisbaenians in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Edward Newman, 80 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1847. Description of a new genus of Emydae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (1847)15:55–56.

Gray, J.E. 1849. Description of a new species of box tortoise from Mexico. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1848[1849]:16–17.

Gray, J.E. 1854a. Description of a new genus and some new species of tortoises. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1852[1854]:133–135.

Gray, J.E. 1854b. Description of a new species of tortoise (Testudo planiceps), from the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1853[1854]:12–13.

Gray, J.E. 1856a. On some new species of freshwater tortoises from North America, Ceylon and Australia, in the collection of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1855[1856](23):197–202. [Published Feb 1856].

Gray, J.E. 1856b [“1855”]. Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Testudinata (Tortoises). London: British Museum, 79 pp. [Published Mar 1856].

Gray, J.E. 1857. Description of a new species of Chelodina from Australia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1856[1857]:369–371.

Gray, J.E. 1859. Description of a new species of freshwater tortoise from Siam. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1859(27):478–479.

Gray, J.E. 1860a. Description of a soft tortoise (Aspidochelys livingstonii) from the Zambesi, sent to the British Museum by Dr. Livingstone. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860(28):5–6.

Gray, J.E. 1860b. Description of a new species of Geoclemmys from Ecuador. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860:231–232.

Gray, J.E. 1860c. Description of a new species of Emys lately living in the gardens of the Zoological Society. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860:232–233.

Gray, J.E. 1860d. On some new species of Mammalia and tortoises from Cambojia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)6:217–218.

Gray, J.E. 1861a. Description of a soft tortoise from Camboja. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1861:41–42.

Gray, J.E. 1861b. On a new species of water–tortoise (Geoclemmys melanosterna) from Darien. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1861:204–205.

Gray, J.E. 1862a. Notice of a new species of Cyclemys from the Lao Mountains, in Siam. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)10:157.

Gray, J.E. 1862b. Notice of two new species of Batagur in the collection of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862:264–265.

Gray, J.E. 1862c. Notice of a new species of Dogania from Asia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862:265–266.

Gray, J.E. 1863a. On the species of Chelymys from Australia; with the description of a new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)12:98–99.

Gray, J.E. 1863b. Notice of a new species of Pelomedusa from Natal. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)12:99–100.

Gray, J.E. 1863c. Notes on American Emydidae, and Professor Agassiz’s observations on my catalogue of them. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)12:176–183.

Gray, J.E. 1863d. Notice of a new species of Kinixys and other tortoises from central Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)12:381–382.

Gray, J.E. 1863e. Observations on the box tortoises, with the descriptions of three new Asiatic species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863:173–178.

Gray, J.E. 1863f. On the species of the genus Sternothaerus, with some observations on Kinixys. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863:192–197.

Gray, J.E. 1863g. Notice of a new species of Batagur from north-western India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863:253.

Gray, J.E. 1863h. Description of a new Geoclemys lately living in the Gardens of the Zoological Society. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863:254–255.

Gray, J.E. 1864a. Revision of the species of Trionychidae found in Asia and Africa, with the descriptions of some new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1864:76–98.

Gray, J.E. 1864b. Description of a new species of Staurotypus (S. salvinii) from Guatemala. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1864:127–128.

Gray, J.E. 1864c. On the genera of Chelydidae and the characters furnished by the study of their skulls. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864:128–135.

Gray, J.E. 1865a. Notice of a new genus and species of the family Trionychidae from Western Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)16:204–206.

Gray, J.E. 1865b. On the development of the sternal callosities in Cyclanosteus senegalensis, and on the synonyms of Cyclanosteus and its allied genera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865:422–428

Gray, J.E. 1867. Description of a new Australian tortoise (Elseya latisternum). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)20:43–45.

Gray, J.E. 1868. Notice of Hydraspis gordoni, a new species from Trinidad, living in the gardens of the Society. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868:563–564.

Gray, J.E. 1869a. Notes on the families and genera of tortoises (Testudinata), and on the characters afforded by the study of their skulls. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869:165–225.

Gray, J.E. 1869b. Description of Mauremys laniaria, a new freshwater tortoise. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1869:499–500.

Gray, J.E. 1869c. Description of Emys flavipes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869:643–644.

Gray, J.E. 1870a. Notice of a new Chilian tortoise (Testudo chilensis). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)6:190–191.

Gray, J.E. 1870b. Notes on tortoises in the British Museum, with descriptions of some new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870:653–659.

Gray, J.E. 1870c. Notes on three species of tortoises living in the Society’s gardens. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870:706–708.

Gray, J.E. 1870d. On the family Dermatemydae, and a description of a living species in the gardens of the Society. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870:711–716.

Gray, J.E. 1870e. Notes on Bartlettia, a new species of freshwater tortoises belonging to the family Peltocephalidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1870:718–721.

Gray, J.E. 1870f. Supplement to the Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Testudinata (Tortoises). London: British Museum, 120 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1871a. On Euchelymys, a new genus and two new species of Australian freshwater tortoises. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)8:117–118.

Gray, J.E. 1871b. Notes on Australian freshwater tortoises. [2]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)8:366.

Gray, J.E. 1871c. Damonia oblonga, a new species of freshwater tortoise. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)8:367.

Gray, J.E. 1872a. Notes on the mud-tortoises of India (Trionyx, Geoffroy). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)10:326–340.

Gray, J.E. 1872b. On Spatulemys lasalae, a new genus of Hydraspidae from Rio Parana, Corrientes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)10:463.

Gray, J.E. 1872c. Appendix to the Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Testudinata (Tortoises). London: British Museum, 28 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1872d. On the genus Chelymys and its allies from Australia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1872:504–514.

Gray, J.E. 1873a. Notes on tortoises. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)11:143–149.

Gray, J.E. 1873b. On a new freshwater tortoise from Borneo (Orlitia borneensis). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)11:156–157.

Gray, J.E. 1873c. Observations on chelonians, with descriptions of new genera and species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)11:289–308.

Gray, J.E. 1873d. Damonia unicolor, a new species of water-tortoise from China, sent by Mr. Swinhoe. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)12:77–78.

Gray, J.E. 1873e. Notes on the tortoises of the ‘Zoology of Mexico’ of MM. A. Duméril and Bocourt. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)12:109–114.

Gray, J.E. 1873f. Notes on Chinese mud-tortoises (Trionychidae), with the description of a new species sent to the British Museum by Mr. Swinhoe, and observations on the male organ of this family. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)12:156–161.

Gray, J.E. 1873g. Notes on mud-tortoises (Trionyx, Geoffroy), and on the skulls of the different kinds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1873:38–72.

Gray, J.E. 1873h. Notes on the genera of turtles (Oiacopodes), and especially on their skeletons and skulls. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1873:395–411.

Gray, J.E. 1873i. Hand-List of the Specimens of Shield Reptiles in the British Museum. London: British Museum, 124 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1874. On the skulls and alveolar surfaces of land-tortoises (Testudinata). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1873[1874]:722–728.

Griffith, E. and Pidgeon, E. 1830. The Class Reptilia Arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with Specific Descriptions. In: Griffith, E. (Ed.). The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with Additional Descriptions of all the Species Hitherto Named, and of many not before Noticed. Vol. 9. Reptilia. London: Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., 481 pp. [Part 25, pp. 1–192, published Sep 1830].

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London: Ray Society, Robert Hardwicke, 452 pp.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1869. Report on two collections of Indian reptiles. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869:500–507.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1873. Preliminary notice of some extinct tortoises from the islands of Rodriguez and Mauritius. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)11:397.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1875. Descriptions of the living and extinct races of gigantic land–tortoises. Parts I and II. Introduction, and the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 165:251–284.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1877. The Gigantic Land-Tortoises (Living and Extinct) in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Taylor and Francis, 96 pp.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1882. Description of a new species of tortoise (Geoemyda impressa) from Siam. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882:343–346.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1884. Contribution to our knowledge of Hydromedusa, a genus of South-American freshwater turtles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5)14:421–425.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1885. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Reptilia and Batrachia. In: Salvin, O. and Godman, F.D. (Eds.). Biologica Centrali-Americana. London, 326 pp.

Ha, D.D. 2000. Rua Ho Guom, loai rua moi cho khoa hoc. [Turtles in Hoan Kiem Lake, new species for science]. Khao co Hoc [Archaeology Magazine], Vietnam 4:104–111. [in Vietnamese]

Hallowell, E. 1844. Description of new species of reptiles from Africa. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 1844:118–120.

Hallowell, E. 1854. Descriptions of some new reptiles from California. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 7:91–97.

Harlan, R. 1827. Description of a land tortoise, from the Gallapagos Islands, commonly known as the “elephant tortoise”. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 5:284–292.

Harlan, R. 1835. Genera of North American Reptilia, and a synopsis of the species. In: Harlan, R. Medical and Physical Researches: or original memoirs in medicine, surgery, physiology, geology, zoology, and comparative anatomy. Philadelphia: L.R. Bailey, pp. 84–163.

Harlan, R. 1837. Description of a new species of freshwater tortoise, inhabiting the Columbia River. American Journal of Science 31:382–383.

Hartweg, N. 1934. Description of a new kinosternid from Yucatan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 277:1–2.

Hartweg, N. 1938. Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri, a new turtle from northern Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 371:1–5.

Hartweg, N. 1939. A new American Pseudemys. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 397:1–4.

Haworth, A.H. 1825. A binary arrangement of the class Amphibia. Philosophical Magazine and Journal (1)65:372–373.

Hay, O.P. 1892. The batrachians and reptiles of the state of Indiana. Annual Report of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources 17:412–602.

Hay, O.P. 1903. Two new species of fossil turtles from Oregon. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences 3:237–241.

Hay, O.P. 1904. On the existing genera of the Trionychidae. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 42:268–274.

Hay, O.P. 1908a. On three existing species of sea-turtles, one of them (Caretta remivaga) new. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 34:183–198.

Hay, O.P. 1908b. The Fossil Turtles of North America. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 75:1–568.

Hay, O.P. 1916. Descriptions of some Floridian fossil vertebrates, belonging mostly to the Pleistocene. Annual Report of the Florida State Geological Survey 8:39–76.

Hay, O.P. 1920. Descriptions of some Pleistocene Vertebrata found in the United States. Proceedings of theU.S. National Museum 58:83–146.

Hay, O.P. 1924. The Pleistocene of the middle region of North America and its vertebrated animals. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 322:1–374.

Hay, W.P. 1904. A revision of Malaclemmys, a genus of turtles. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 24:1–19.

Haynes, D. and McKown, R.R. 1974. A new species of map turtle (Genus Graptemys) from the Guadalupe River system in Texas. Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 18(4):143–152.

Hemprich, W. 1820. Grundriss der Naturgeschichte für höhere Lehranstalten. Berlin: August Rucker, 432 pp.

Henderson, J.R. 1912. Preliminary note on a new tortoise from South India. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 7(3):217–218.

Hermann, J. 1793. [Testudo graja]. In: Schoepff, J.D. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [p. 52].

Hermann, J. 1804. Observationes Zoologicae. Opus posthumum edidit Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer. Argentorati [Strasbourg]: A. Koenig, 332 pp.

Herrera, A.L. 1901. Nouvelle nomenclature des etres organises et des mineraux. Mexico, DF: Gov. Fed.

Heude, P.M. 1880. Mémoire sur les Trionyx. Mémoires concernant  l’Histoire Naturelle de l’Empire Chinois 1(1):1–38.

Hewitt, J. 1927. Further descriptions of reptiles and batrachians from South Africa. Records of the Albany Museum 3:371–415.

Hewitt, J. 1931. Descriptions of some African tortoises. Annals of the Natal Museum 6:461–506.

Hewitt, J. 1933. On the Cape species and subspecies of the genus Chersinella Gray. Part I. Annals of the Natal Museum 7(2):255–293.

Hewitt, J. 1934. On the Cape species and subspecies of the genus Chersinella Gray. Part II. Annals of the Natal Museum 7(3):303–349.

Hewitt, J. 1935. Some new forms of batrachians and reptiles from South Africa. Records of the Albany Museum 4:283–357.

Highfield, A.C. 1990. Tortoises of north Africa; taxonomy, nomenclatue, phylogeny and evolution with notes on field studies in Tunisia. Journal of Chelonian Herpetology 1(2):1–56.

Highfield, A.C. and Martin, J. 1989. Description of a miniature tortoise Testudo flavominimaralis n. species from North Africa. In: Highfield, A.C. Introduction to a Conservation Project for the North African Tortoise. London: Tortoise Trust,  no pagination [pp. 9–12].

Hoffmann, C.K. 1890. Schildkröten. In: Bronn, H.G. (Ed.). Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier–Reichs. Vol. 6, Part 3, Reptilien, Vol. 1. Leipzig: Winter’sche Verlagshandlung, 442 pp.

Holbrook, J.E. 1836. North American Herpetology; or, a Description of the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Ed. 1, Vol. 1. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 120 pp.

Holbrook, J.E. 1838a. North American Herpetology; or, a Description of the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Ed. 1, Vol. 2. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 125 pp.

Holbrook, J.E. 1838b. North American Herpetology; or, a Description of the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Ed. 1, Vol. 3. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 122 pp.

Holbrook, J.E. 1840. North American Herpetology; or, a Description of the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Ed. 1, Vol. 4. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 126 pp.

Hsü, H.F. 1930. Preliminary note on a new variety of Cyclemys flavomarginata from China. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China, Zoological Series 6(1):1–7.

Hubrecht, A.A.W. 1881. On certain tortoises in the collections of the Leyden Museum. Notes Leyden Museum 3:41–50.

Humboldt, A. von. 1831. [Testudo arrau, Testudo terekay]. In: Gray, J.E. Synopsis Reptilium; or Short Descriptions of the Species of Reptiles. Part I.—Cataphracta. Tortoises, Crocodiles, and Enaliosaurians. London: Treuttel, Wurz, and Co., 85 pp. [p. 77].

Hummel, K. 1929. Die fossilen weichschildkröten (Trionychia). Eine morphologisch-systematische und stammesgeschichtliche Studie. Geologische und Palaeontologische Abhandlungen 16:359–487.

Hurter, J. 1911. Herpetology of Missouri. Transactions of the Academy of Sciences, St. Louis 20:59–274.

Ihering, H. von. 1926. [Hydraspis lutzi]. In: Luederwaldt, H. Os chelonios brasileiros. Revista Museo Paulista 14:403–470.

Iverson, J.B. 1979. A taxonomic reappraisal of the yellow mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens (Testudines: Kinosternidae). Copeia 1979(2):212–225.

Iverson, J.B. 1981. Biosystematics of the Kinosternon hirtipes species group (Testudines: Kinosternidae). Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 23:1–74.

Iverson, J.B. and McCord, W.P. 1992a. A new Chinese eyed turtle of the genus Sacalia (Batagurinae: Testudines). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 105(3):426–432.

Iverson, J.B. and McCord, W.P. 1992b. A new subspecies of Cuora galbinifrons (Testudines: Batagurinae) from Hainan Island, China. oceedings of the Biological Society of Washington105(3):433–439.

Iverson, J.B. and McCord, W.P. 1997. A new species of Cyclemys (Testudines: Bataguridae) from southeast Asia. oceedings of the Biological Society of Washington110(4):629–639.

Jaekel, O. 1911. Die fossilen Schildkröten von Trinil. In: Selenka, M.L. and Blanckenhorn, M. (Eds.). Die Pithecanthropus-Schichten auf Java. Geologische und Paläontologische Ergebnisse der Trinil-Expedition (1907 und 1908). Leipzig: Engelmann, pp. 75–81.

Jarocki, F.P.N. 1822. Zoologia czyly zwierzetopismo ogolne podlug naynowszego systematu. Vol. 3. Warsaw. [in Polish]

Jerdon, T.C. 1870. Notes on Indian herpetology. Proceedings of theAsiatic Society of Bengal 1870(3):66–85.

Jesu, R., Piombo, R., Salvidio, S., Lamagni, L., Ortale, S., and Genta, P. 2004. Un nuovo taxon di testuggine palustre endemico della Liguria occidentale: Emys orbicularis ingauna n. ssp. (Reptilia, Emydidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria” 96:133–192. [in Italian]

Johnston, C.S. 1937. Osteology of Bysmachelys canyonensis, a new turtle from the Pliocene of Texas. Journal of Geology 45:439–447.

Joyce, W.G., Parham, J.F., and Gauthier, J.A. 2004. Developing a protocol for the conversion of rank-based taxon names to phylogenetically defined clade names, as exemplified by turtles. Journal of Paleontology 78:989–1013.

Kanberg, H. 1924. Uber eine neue Schildkröte aus Kamerun. Zoologischer Anzeiger 60:195–197.

Kanberg, H. 1930. Eine neue Schildkröte aus Costa Rica. Zoologischer Anzeiger 88:161–162.

Khosatzky, L.K. and Mlynarski, M. 1966. Agrionemys—nouveau genre de tortue terrestres (Testudinidae). Bulletin Academie Polonaise Sciences 14:123–125.

Klein, J.T. 1751. Quadrupedum Dispositio Brevisque Historia Naturalis. Lipsiae: B.C. Breitkopfium, 127 pp.

Klein, J.T. 1760. [Testudinata]. In: Behn, F.D. (Transl.). Jakob Theodor Kleins Classification und Kurze Geschichte der Vierfüssigen Thiere. Lübeck: Jonas Schmidt, 381 pp.

Kou, Z. 1989. Cyclemys from Yunnan, a description of a new species and a new record to China (Testudinata: Emydidae). In: Matsui, M., Hikida, T. and Goris, R.C. (Eds.). Current herpetology in East Asia. Proceedings of the second Japan–China herpetological symposium, Kyoto, July 1988. Herpetological Society of Japan 1989:193–197.

Krefft, G. 1876. Notes on Australian animals in New Guinea with description of a new species of fresh water tortoise belonging to the genus Euchelymys (Gray). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (1)8:390–394.

Kuchling, G., Rhodin, A.G.J., Ibarrondo, B.R., and Trainor, C.R. 2007. A new subspecies of the snakeneck turtle Chelodina mccordi from Timor-Leste (East Timor) (Testudines: Chelidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 6(2):213–222.

Kuhl, H. 1820. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Amphibien. In: Kuhl, H. Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie. Erste Abtheilung. Beiträge zur Zoologie. Frankfurt: Hermannschen Buchhandlung, pp. 75–132.

Kuhn, O. 1960. Die Familien der fossilen Amphibien und Reptilien. Bericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bamberg 37:20–52.

Lacépède, B.G.E. de. 1788. Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares et des Serpens. Tome Premier. Paris: Hôtel de Thou, 651 pp. Quarto edition.

Lapparent de Broin, F. de, Bour, R., Parham, J.F., and Perälä, J. 2006. Eurotestudo, a new genus for the species Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 (Chelonii, Testudinidae). Comptes Rendus Paleovol 5:803–811.

Lataste, F. 1881. Diagnose d’une nouvelle tortue Testudo graeca bettai, n. sbsp. Le Naturaliste 1:396.

Lataste, F. 1886. Description d’une tortue nouvelle du Haut-Sénégal (Homopus nogueyi). Le Naturaliste (2)8:286–287.

Lataste, F. 1888. Description d’une tortue nouvelle originaire du Haut-Sénégal (Cinixys dorri, n. sp.). Le Naturaliste (2)10:164–166.

Latreille, P.A. 1800. Historie naturelle des Salamandres de France, précédée d’un tableau méthodique des autres Reptiles indigènes. Paris: Imprimerie de Crapelet, 61 pp.

Latreille, P.A. 1801. Histoire Naturelle des Reptiles. In: Sonnini, C.S. and Latreille, P.A. Histoire Naturelle des Reptiles, avec figures dessinées d’après nature. Tome Premier. Première Partie. Quadrupèdes et Bipèdes Ovipares. Paris: Imprimerie de Crapelet, 280 pp.

Latreille, P.A. 1825. Familles Naturelles du Règne Animal, exposées succinctement et dans un ordre analytique, avec l’indication de leurs genres. Paris: Baillière, 570 pp.

Laurent, R.F. 1956. Contribution a l’herpétologie de la région des grands lacs de l’Afrique centrale. I. Généralites. II. Chéloniens. III. Ophidiens. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge Tervuren, Sciences Zoologiques 48:5–390.

Laurent, R.F. 1965. A contribution to the knowledge of the genus Pelusios (Wagler). Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques, Tervuren 135:1–33.

Laurin, M. and Reisz, R.R. 1995. A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113:165–223.

Le, M., Raxworthy, C.J., McCord, W.P., and Mertz, L. 2006. A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:517–531.

Le, T.B., Le, Q.H., Tran, M.L., Phan, T.H., Phan, M.T., Tran, T.T.H., Pham, T.T., Nguyen, D.T., Nong, V.H., Phan, V.C., Dinh, D.K., Truong, N.H., and Ha, D.D. 2010. Comparative morphological and DNA analysis of specimens of giant freshwater soft-shelled turtle in Vietnam related to Hoan Kiem turtle. T?p Chí Công Ngh? Sinh H?c [Journal of Biotechnology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology] 8(3A):949–954.

LeConte, J. 1830. Description of the species of North American tortoises. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York 3:91–131.

LeConte, J. 1854. Description of four new species of Kinosternum. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 7:180–190.

LeConte, J. 1860. Description of two new species of tortoises. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 11(1859)[1860]:4–7.

Legler, J.M. 1959. A new tortoise, genus Gopherus, from north-central Mexico. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History 11(5):335–343.

Legler, J.M. 1960. A new subspecies of slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta) from Coahuila, Mexico. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History 13(3):73–84.

Legler, J.M. 1965. A new species of turtle, genus Kinosternon, from Central America. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History 15(13):617–625.

Legler, J.M. 1990. The genus Pseudemys in Mesoamerica: taxonomy, distribution and origins. In: Gibbons, J.W. (Ed.). Life History and Ecology of the Slider Turtle. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 82–105.

Legler, J.M. and Cann, J. 1980. A new genus and species of chelid turtle from Queensland, Australia. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 324:1–18.

Legler, J.M. and Webb, R.G. 1970. A new slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta) from Sonora, Mexico. Herpetologica 26(2):157–168.

Lehr, E., Fritz, U., and Obst, F.J. 1998. Cuora galbinifrons picturata subsp. nov., eine neue Unterart der Hinterindischen Scharnierschildkröte. Herpetofauna 20(113):5–11.

Lesson, R.P. 1830. Centurie Zoologique, ou Choix d’Animaux Rares, Nouveaux ou Imparfaitement Connus. Paris: F.G. Levrault, 235 pp.

Lesson, R.P. 1831a. Catalogue des Reptiles qui font partie d’une Collection zoologique recueille dans l’Inde continentale ou en Afrique, et apportée en France par M. Lamare–Piquot. Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et Géologiques, Paris 25(2):119–123.

Lesson, R.P. 1831b. Reptiles. In: Bélanger, C. (Ed.). Voyage aux Indes–Orientales, par le Nord de l’Europe, les Provinces du Caucase, la Géorgie, l’Arménie et la Perse, suivi de Détails topographiques, statistiques et autres sur le Pégou, les Iles de Java, de Maurice et de Bourbon, sur le Cap de Bonne-Espérance et Sainte-Hélène, pendant les Années 1825, 1826, 1827, 1828 et 1829. Zoologie. Paris: A. Bertrand, pp. 289–336.

Lesson, R.P. 1832. Illustrations de Zoologie, ou Recueil de figures d’Animaux peintes d’après nature. Pl. 7. Paris: A. Bertrand, 60 pls.

LeSueur, C.A. 1817. An account of an American species of tortoise, not noticed in the systems. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 1:86–88.

LeSueur, C.A. 1827. Note sur deux espèces de tortues, du genre Trionyx de M. Geoffroy–Saint–Hilaire. Mémoires du Musée d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 15:257–268.

Li, Z.Y. 1958. Report on the investigation of reptiles of Hainan Island. Chinese Journal of Zoology 2(4):234–239.

Lichtenstein, H. 1856. Nomenclator reptilium et amphibiorum Musei Zoologici Berolinensis. Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin ausgestellten Arten von Reptilien und Amphibien nach ihren Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 48 pp.

Lidth de Jeude, T.W.V. 1893. On a new species of the genus Testudo. Notes Leyden Museum 15:312–313.

Lindholm, W.A. 1906. Beschreibung einer neuen Schildkrötenart aus Deutsch-Sudwestafrika nebst Bemerkungen über die Gattung Homopus D. et B. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde, Wiesbaden 59:345–351.

Lindholm, W.A. 1929. Revidiertes Verzeichnis der Gattungen der rezenten Schildkröten nebst Notizen zur Nomenklatur einiger Arten. Zoologischer Anzeiger 81:275–295.

Lindholm, W.A. 1931. Über eine angebliche Testudo-Art aus Südchina. Zoologischer Anzeiger 97:27–30.

Link, H.F. 1807. Beschreibung der Naturalien-Sammlung der Universität zu Rostock, Volume 2. Rostock: Adlers Erben, 100 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, Reformata. [10th Ed.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 824 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1766. Systema Naturae. Editio Duodecima, Reformata. Tomus I, Pars I, Regnum Animale. [12th Ed.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 532 pp.

Lortet, L. 1883. Poissons et reptiles du lac de Tibériade et de quelques autres parties de Syrie. Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Lyon 3:99–194.

Loveridge, A. 1923. Notes on East African tortoises collected 1921–1923, with the description of a new species of soft land tortoise. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1923:923–933.

Loveridge, A. 1935. Scientific results of an expedition to rain forest regions in eastern Africa. I. New reptiles and amphibians from East Africa. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 79:1–19.

Loveridge, A. and Williams, E.E. 1957. Revision of the African tortoises and turtles of the suborder Cryptodira. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 115(6):163–557.

Lovich, J.E. and McCoy, C.J. 1992. Review of the Graptemys pulchra group (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae), with descriptions of two new species. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 61(4):293–315.

Luederwaldt, H. 1926. Os chelonios brasileiros. Revista Museo Paulista 14:403–470.

Luo, B. and Zong, Y. 1988. A new species of Cuora – Cuora aurocapitata. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 3:13–15.

Lydekker, R. 1885. Indian Tertiary and post-Tertiary Vertebrata. Siwalik and Nerbada Chelonia. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica (10)3:155–208.

Lydekker, R. 1889. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum. Part III. Chelonia. London: British Museum of Natural History, 239 pp.

Mayer, F.J.C. 1849. System des Thier-Reiches oder Eintheilung der Thiere nach einem Principe entworfen. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande 6:169–210.

Mayer, R. 1992. Europäische Landschildkröten. Leben – Haltung – Zucht. Kempten: Agrar Verlag Allgäu, 127 pp.

McCord, W.P. 1997. Mauremys pritchardi, a new batagurid turtle from Myanmar and Yunnan, China. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(4):555–562.

McCord, W.P. and Iverson, J.B. 1991. A new box turtle of the genus Cuora (Testudines: Emydidae) with taxonomic notes and a key to the species. Herpetologica 47(4):407–420.

McCord, W.P. and Iverson, J.B. 1992. A new species of Ocadia (Testudines: Bataguridae) from Hainan Island, China. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 105(1):13–18.

McCord, W.P. and Iverson, J.B. 1994. A new species of Ocadia (Testudines: Batagurinae) from southwestern China. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 107(1):52–59.

McCord, W.P. and Joseph-Ouni, M. 2007a. A new species of Chelodina (Testudines: Chelidae) from southwestern New Guinea (Papua, Indonesia). Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 52:47–52.

McCord, W.P. and Joseph-Ouni, M. 2007b. A new genus of Australian longneck turtle (Testudines: Chelidae) and a new species of Macrochelodina from the Kimberley region of Western Australia (Australia). Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 55:56–64.

McCord, W.P. and Philippen, H.D. 1998. A new subspecies of box turtle, Cuora amboinensis lineata, from northern Myanmar (Burma), with remarks on the distribution and geographic variation of the species. Reptile Hobbyist 1998(March):51–58.

McCord, W.P. and Pritchard, P.C.H. 2003. A review of the softshell turtles of the genus Chitra, with the description of new taxa from Myanmar and Indonesia (Java). Hamadryad 27(1)(2002)[2003]:11–56.

McCord, W.P. and Thomson, S.A. 2002. A new species of Chelodina (Testudines: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from northern Australia. Journal of Herpetology 36(2):255–267.

McCord, W.P., Iverson, J.B., and Boeadi. 1995. A new batagurid turtle from northern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(4):311–316.

McCord, W.P., Iverson, J.B., Spinks, P.Q., and Shaffer, H.B. 2000. A new genus of geoemydid turtle from Asia. Hamadryad 25(2):86–90.

McCord, W.P., Joseph-Ouni, M., and Lamar, W.W. 2001. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49(2):715–764.

McCord, W.P., Cann, J., and Joseph-Ouni, M. 2003. A taxonomic assessment of Emydura (Testudines: Chelidae) with descriptions of new subspecies from Queensland, Australia. Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 27:59–63.

McCord, W.P., Joseph-Ouni, M., and Hagen, C. 2007a. A new species of Chelodina (Testudines: Chelidae) from eastern Timor Island (East Timor). Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 52:53–57.

McCord, W.P., Joseph-Ouni, M., and Hagen, C. 2007b. A new subspecies of Chelodina mccordi (Testudines: Chelidae) from eastern Rote Island, Indonesia. Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 52:58–61.

McCord, W.P., Joseph-Ouni, M., Hagen, C., and Blanck, T. 2010. Three new subspecies of Trachemys venusta (Testudines: Emydidae) from Honduras, northern Yucatán (Mexico), and Pacific Coastal Panama. Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 71:39–49.

McCulloch, A.R. 1908. A new genus and species of turtle, from north Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 7:126–128.

Mehnert, E. 1890. Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung des Beckengürtels der Emys lutaria taurica. Morphologische Jahrbucher 16:537–571.

Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien. Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum. Marburg: J.C. Krieger, 191 pp.

Mertens, R. 1937. Bemerkungen uber die Rassen von Pelomedusa subrufa (La Cepede). Zoologischer Anzeiger 117:139–142.

Mertens, R. 1946. Uber einige mediterrane Schildkröten-Rassen. Senckenbergiana 27:111–118.

Mertens, R. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Schildkrötenfauna Venezuelas. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35(1/2):3–7.

Mertens, R. 1967. Bemerkenswerte Susswasserschildkröten aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48:71–82.

Mertens, R. 1969a. Eine neue Rasse der Dachschildkrote, Kachuga tecta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 50:23–30.

Mertens, R. 1969b. Eine neue Halswender-Schildkröte aus Peru. Senckenbergiana Biologica 50:132.

Meuschen, F.C. 1778. [Testudo planitia]. Museum Gronovianum sive Index Rer. Natur., p. 11.

Meyer, A.B. 1874. Eine Mittheilung über die von mir auf Neu–Guinea und den Inseln Jobi, Mysore und Mafoor im Jahre 1873 gesammelten Amphibien. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 39:128–140.

Meyer, F.A.A. 1790. Kurze Beschreibungen neuer Thiere. Ausgezogen aus dem Leipziger Naturhistorischen Magazin. Magazin für Thiergeschichte, Thieranatomie und Thierarzenkunde, Göttingen 1:80–83.

Meyer, H. von. 1835. Brieflich Mittheilung. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralien, Stuttgart 1835:63–69.

Meylan, P.A. 1987. The phylogenetic relationships of soft-shelled turtles (Family Trionychidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 186:1–101.

Michahelles, C. 1829. Commentatio de speciebus aut rarioribus, aut novis cheloniorum Europam meridionalem inhabitantibus. Isis von Oken 1829(12):1295–1300.

Mikan, J.C. 1820. Delectus Florae et Faunae Brasiliensis. Fasciculus Primus. Vindobonae: 6 pp., 6 pls.

Mikan, J.C. 1825. Delectus Florae et Faunae Brasiliensis. Fasciculus Quartus. Vindobonae: 6 pp., 6 pls.

Miller, J.F. 1779. Icones Animalium et Plantarum. Various subjects of natural history, wherein are delineated birds, animals, and many curious plants. London: Letterpress, 10 pp., 60 pls.

Mojsisovics, A.V. 1889. Zoogeographische Notizen über Süd-Ungarn aus den Jahren 1886–1888. III. Nachtrag zur “Fauna von Béllye und Darda”. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, Graz 25(1888)[1889]:233–269.

Moll, E.O. 1987. Survey of the freshwater turtles of India. Part II: The genus Kachuga. Journal of theBombay Natural History Society 84:7–25.

Mosimann, J.E. and Rabb, G.B. 1953. A new subspecies of the turtle Geoemyda rubida (Cope) from western Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 548:1–7.

Müller, L. 1935. Uber eine neue Podocnemis-Art (Podocnemis vogli) aus Venezuela nebst ergänzenden Bemerkungen uber die systematischen Merkmale der ihr nächstverwandten Arten. Zoologischer Anzeiger 110(5/6):97–109.

Müller, L. and Hellmich, W. 1936. Amphibien und Reptilien. I. Teil: Amphibia, Chelonia, Loricata. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Gran Chaco Expedition. Stuttgart: Verlag Von Strecker und Schroder, pp. 96–108.

Murray, J.A. 1884. Additions to the reptilian fauna of Sind. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5)14:106–111.

Nardo, G.D. 1864. Sopra una nuovo rarissima specie di cheloniano pescato alle nostre spiaggie. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (3)9:1418–1423. [in Italian]

Neill, W.T. 1965. New and noteworthy amphibians and reptiles from British Honduras. Bulletin of theFlorida State Museum, Biological Sciences 9:77–130.

Nikolsky, A.M. 1896. Diagnosis Reptilium et Amphibiorum novorum in Persia orientali a N. Zarudny Collectorum. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg 4:369–372.

Nikolsky, A.M. 1915. Faune de la Russie et des Pays Limitrophes. Reptiles (Reptilia). Volume I. Chelonia et Sauria. Petrograd: 532 pp.

Nilsson, S. 1841. Beskrifning öfver en i Skåne funnen fossil sköldpadda, jemförd med andra i Svensk jord funna qvarlefvor af samma djurordning. [Description of a fossil turtle found in Skåne, compared with other Swedish remains of the same order of animals]. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar 1839[1841]:194–211. [in Swedish]

Nutaphand, W. 1979. The Turtles of Thailand. Bangkok: Siamfarm Zoological Garden, 222 pp.

Nutaphand, W. 1986. [Manlai, the world’s largest soft-shelled turtle]. Thai Zoological Magazine 1(4):64–70. [in Thai]

Nutaphand, W. 1990. [Softshelled turtles]. Thai Zoological Magazine 5(56):93–104. [in Thai]

Obst, F.J. and Reimann, M. 1994. Bemerkenswerte Variabilität bei Cuora galbinifrons Bourret, 1939, mit Beschreibung einer neuen geographischen Unterart: Cuora galbinifrons bourreti subsp. nov. (Reptilia: Testudines: Cryptodira: Bataguridae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 48:125–137.

Oelrich, T.M. 1953. A new boxturtle from the Pleistocene of southwestern Kansas. Copeia 1953(1):33–38.

Ogilby, J.D. 1890. Description of a new Australian tortoise. Records of the Australian Museum 1:56–59.

Ogilby, J.D. 1905. Catalogue of the Emydosaurian and Testudinian reptiles of New Guinea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 19(1):1–31.

Olivier, A.G. 1807. Voyage dans l’Empire Ottoman, l’Egypte et la Perse. Paris: Vol. 6.

Oppel, M. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodrom einer Naturgeschichte derselben. München: J. Lindauer, 86 pp.

Ottley, J.R. and Velázquez Solis, V.M. 1989. An extant, indigenous tortoise population in Baja California Sur, Mexico, with the description of a new species of Xerobates (Testudines: Testudinidae). Great Basin Naturalist 49:496–502.

Ouwens, P.A. 1914. List of Dutch East Indian chelonians in the Buitenzorg Zoological Museum. Contributions à la Faune des Indes Néerlandaises, Buitenzorg1:29–32.

Owen, R. 1853. Descriptive Catalogue of the Osteological Series Contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vol I. Pisces, Reptilia, Aves, Marsupialia. London: Taylor and Francis, 350 pp.

Pallas, P.S. 1814. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica. III. Animalia Monocardia seu Frigidi Sanguinis Imperii Rosso-Asiatici. Petropolis: Officina Caes. Academiae Scientiarum, 428 pp.

Paolillo, A. 1985. Description of a new subspecies of the turtle Rhinoclemmys punctularia (Daudin) (Testudines: Emydidae) from southern Venezuela. Amphibia-Reptilia 6(3):293–305.

Parenzan, P. 1932. Revisione delle specie del Gen. Testudo della Balcania. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti 91(11):1149–1169.

Pavlov, P.A. 1932. Materials for the study of fauna of northern China, Manchuria, and Mongolia. Reptilia and Amphibia. Part 1, Chelonia. Publications du Musée Hoang ho Pai ho de Tientsin 13:1–37.

Pavlov, P.A. 1933. Reptilia and Amphibia collected in 1932 by the staff of the Hoang-ho Pai-ho Museum. Publications du Musée Hoang ho Pai ho de Tientsin 23:1–12.

Pennant, T. 1801. [Testudo tuberculata]. In: Schoepff, J.D. 1801. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [p. 123].

Perälä, J. 1996. Tortoises in southern Turkey. In: Kanza, M., Perälä, J., and Vikberg, J. (Eds.). Herpetokongressi I – The Official Congress Publication, Herpetological Society of Finland, pp. 14–26.

Perälä, J. 2001. A new species of Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the Middle East, with implications for conservation. Journal of Herpetology 35(4):567–582.

Perälä, J. 2002. Morphological variation among Middle Eastern Testudo graeca L., 1758 (sensu lato), with a focus on taxonomy. Proceedings of the International Congress on the Genus Testudo. Chelonii 3:78–108.

Peters, W.K.H. 1848. Ueber eigenthumliche Moschusdrüsen bei Schildkröten. Archiv fürAnatomie und Physiologie 1848:492–496.

Peters, W.K.H. 1854. Ubersicht der auf seiner Reise nach Mossambique beobachteten Schildkröten. Bericht Bekanntmachung Verhandlungen Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1854:215–216.

Peters, W.K.H. 1862. Über einen neuen Phyllodactylus aus Guayaquil. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1862:626–627.

Peters, W.K.H. 1868. Eine Mittheilung über eine neue Nagergattung, Chiropodomys pencillatus, so wie über neue oder weniger bekannte Amphibien und Fische. Amphibien. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868:448–453.

Peters, W.K.H. 1870. Platemys tuberosa, eine neue Art von Schildkröten aus British-Guiana. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1870:311–313.

Peters, W.K.H. 1873. Ueber eine neue Schildkrötenart, Cinosternon effeldtii und einige andrere neue oder weniger bekannte Amphibien. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1873:603–618.

Peters, W.K.H. 1874. Clemmys (Heteroclemmys) gibbera, sub. g. and sp. nn. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1874(2):622.

Philippen, H.D. and Grossmann, P. 1990. Eine neue Schlangenhalsschildkröte von Neuguinea: Chelodina reimanni sp. n. (Reptilia, Testudines, Pleurodira: Chelidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum Tierkunde Dresden 46(5):95–102.

Philippi, R.A. 1887. Vorlaufige Nachricht über die chilenischen Seeschildkröten und einige Fische der chilenischen Kuste. Zoologische Garten 28:84–88.

Philippi, R.A. 1899. Las tortugas chilenas. Anales de Universidad de Chile 104:727–736.

Pieh, A. 2001. Testudo graeca soussensis, eine neue Unterart der Maurischen Landschildkröte aus dem Sousstal (Südwest-Marokko). Salamandra 36(4):209–222.

Pieh, A. and Perälä, J. 2002. Variabilität von Testudo graeca Linnaeus, 1758 im östlichen Nordafrika mit Beschreibung eines neuen Taxons von der Cyrenaika (Nordostlibyen). Herpetozoa 15(1/2):3–28.

Pieh, A. and Perälä, J. 2004. Variabilität der Maurischen Landschildkröten (Testudo graeca Linnaeus, 1758 – Komplex) im zentralen und norwestlichen Marokko mit Beschreibung zweier neuer Taxa (Testudines: Testudinidae). Herpetozoa 17(1/2):19–47.

Ping, C. 1930. Notes on the shell of a land tortoise from the ancient ruins of Annyang. Bulletin of theFan Memorial Institute of Biology 1(13):217–226.

Pope, C.H. 1934. A new emydid turtle of the genus Geoclemys from Kwangtung Province, China. American Museum Novitates 691:1–2.

Power, J.H. 1927. On the herpetological fauna of the Lobatsi-Linokana Area. Part I. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 14:405–422.

Praschag, P., Schmidt, C., Fritzsch, G., Müller, A., Gemel, R., and Fritz, U. 2006. Geoemyda silvatica, an enigmatic turtle of the Geoemydidae (Reptilia: Testudines), represents a distinct genus. Organisms, Diversity, and Evolution 6:151–162.

Praschag, P., Holloway, R., Georges, A., Päckert, M., Hundsdörfer, A.K., and Fritz, U. 2009. A new subspecies of Batagur affinis (Cantor, 1847), one of the world’s most critically endangered chelonians (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Zootaxa 2233:57–68.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 1979. Encyclopedia of Turtles. Neptune, NJ: TFH Publications, 895 pp.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 1996. The Galápagos Tortoises: Nomenclatural and Survival Status. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 1, 85 pp.

Pritchard, P.C.H. and McCord, W.P. 1991. A new emydid turtle from China. Herpetologica 47(2):139–147.

Pritchard, P.C.H. and Trebbau, P. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Contributions in Herpetology No. 2, 403 pp.

Qin, J.Q. 1992 [“1991”]. A new species of genus Clemmys: C. guangxiensis. In: Qian, Y.M., Zhao, E.M., and Zhao, K.T. (Eds.). Animal Science Research. A volume issued to celebrate the 90th birthday of Mangven L.Y. Chang. China Forestry Press, Beijing (12)2:60–62.

Quoy, J.R.C. and Gaimard, J.P. 1824a. Description d’une nouvelle espece de tortue et de trois especes nouvelles de scinques. Férussac Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles, Paris 1:90–91.

Quoy, J.R.C. and Gaimard, J.P. 1824b. Sous-genre Tortue de Terre–Testudo Brongn. Tortue Noire–Testudo nigra N. In: Freycinet, M.L. de. Voyage Autour du Monde, Entrepris par le ministére et conformément aux instructions de s. exc. M. le Vicomte du Bouchage, Secrétaire d’etat au Department de la Marine, Exécuté sur les corvettes de S.M. l’Uranie et la Physicienne, pendant les années 1817–1820. Zoologie. Paris, pp. 174–175.

Rafinesque, C.S. 1814. Prodrono di erpetologia Siciliana. Specchio delle Scienze, Palermo 2(9):65–67, 102–104. [in Italian]

Rafinesque, C.S. 1815. Analyse de la Nature ou Tableau de l’Univers et des Corps Organisés. Palermo: 223 pp.

Rafinesque, C.S. 1822. On the turtles of the United States. Kentucky Gazette (n.s.1)36(no.21, May 23):3.

Rafinesque, C.S. 1832. Description of two new genera of soft shell turtles of North America. Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge 1:64–65.

Ramsay, E.P. 1886. On a new genus and species of fresh water tortoise from the Fly River, New Guinea. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales (2)1:158–162.

Reimann, M. 1979. [Geoemyda trijuga wiroti, Testudo nutapundi]. In: Nutaphand, W. The Turtles of Thailand. Bangkok: Siamfarm Zoological Garden, pp. 177–178, 193–195.

Retzius, A.J. 1792. [Testudo tricarinata]. In: Schoepff, J.D. 1792. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [p. 9].

Rhodin, A.G.J. 1994a. Chelid turtles of the Australasian Archipelago: I. A new species of Chelodina from southeastern Papua New Guinea. Breviora 497:1–36.

Rhodin, A.G.J. 1994b. Chelid turtles of the Australasian Archipelago: II. A new species of Chelodina from Roti Island, Indonesia. Breviora 498:1–31.

Rhodin, A.G.J. and Mittermeier, R.A. 1976. Chelodina parkeri, a new species of chelid turtle from New Guinea, with a discussion of Chelodina siebenrocki Werner, 1901. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 147(11):465–488.

Rhodin, A.G.J. and Mittermeier, R.A. 1983. Description of Phrynops williamsi, a new species of chelid turtle of the South American P. geoffroanus complex. In: Rhodin, A.G.J. and Miyata, K. (Eds.). Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology. Essays in Honor of Ernest E. Williams. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, pp. 58–73.

Rhodin, A.G.J., Mittermeier, R.A., and McMorris, J.R. 1984. Platemys macrocephala, a new species of chelid turtle from central Bolivia and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Herpetologica 40(1):38–46.

Riche, M. 1801. [Testudo amboinensis]. In: Daudin, F.M. Histoire Naturelle, Generale et Particuliere, des Reptiles. Tome Second. Paris: Dufart, 432 pp. [pp. 309–312].

Ritgen, F.A. 1828. Versuch einer Natürlichen Eintheilung der Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum14:245–284.

Rivers, J.J. 1889. Description of a new turtle from the Sacramento River belonging to the family of Trionychidae. Proceedings of the  California Academy of Sciences 2:333–336.

Rochebrune, A.T. 1884. Faune de la Sénégambie. Reptiles. Paris: O. Dom, 221 pp.

Rogner, M. 1996. Schildkröten 2. Hürtgenwald: Heidi-Rogner-Verlag, 265 pp.

Ross, W. and Macartney, J. 1802. Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, translated from the French of G. Cuvier. Volume 1. London, Oriental Press, 710 pp.

Rothschild, W. 1901. On a new land-tortoise from the Galapagos Islands. Novitates Zoologicae 8:372.

Rothschild, W. 1902. Description of a new species of gigantic land-tortoise from the Galapagos Islands. Novitates Zoologicae 9:619.

Rothschild, W. 1903. Description of a new species of gigantic land tortoise from Indefatigable Island. Novitates Zoologicae 10:119.

Rothschild, W. 1906. A new species of giant tortoise. Novitates Zoologicae 13:753–754.

Ruiz de Xelva, M. 1801. [Testudo bispinosa]. In: Daudin, F.M. Histoire Naturelle, Generale et Particuliere, des Reptiles. Tome Second. Paris: Dufart, 432 pp. [pp. 94–97].

Rummler, H.J. and Fritz, U. 1991. Geographische Variabilität der Amboina-Scharnierschildkröte Cuora amboinensis (Daudin, 1802), mit Beschreibung einer neuen Unterart, C. a. kamaroma subsp. nov. Salamandra 27(1):17–45.

Rüppell, E. 1835. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Amphibien. Frankfurt: S. Schmerber, 18 pp.

Rüppell, E. 1845. Beschreibung und Abbildung einer neuen Art von Landschildkröten, zur Gattung Kinyxis gehörig. Museum Senckenbergianum 3:223–292.

Sauzier, T. 1892. Tortue de terre gigantesque à l’ile Maurice. La Nature, Paris 1892:395–398.

Say, T. 1825. On the fresh water and land tortoises of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 4(2):203–219, 412[errata].

Schlegel, H. 1844. Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien, nach der Natur oder dem Leben entworfen, herausgegeben und mit einem erläuternden Texte begleitet. Düsseldorf: Arnz, 141 pp.

Schlegel, H. and Müller, S. 1840. Over de Schildpadden van den Indischen Archipel, beschrijving einer nieuwe soort van Sumatra. In: Temminck, C.J. (Ed.). Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke Geschiendenis der Nederlandsche Overzeesche Bezittingen, 1839–44. Part 3. Zoologie, Schildpadden. Leiden: Luchtmans and van der Hoek, plate 4. [in Dutch]

Schlegel, H. and Müller, S. 1845. Over de Schildpadden van den Indischen Archipel, beschrijving einer nieuwe soort van Sumatra. In: Temminck, C.J. (Ed.). Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke Geschiendenis der Nederlandsche Overzeesche Bezittingen, 1839–44. Part 3. Zoologie, Schildpadden. Leiden: Luchtmans and van der Hoek, pp. 29–36. [in Dutch]

Schleich, H.H. 1996. Beitrag zur Systematik des Formenkreises von Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger) in Marokko. Teil I. Spixiana Suppl. 22:29–59.

Schleich, H.H. and Gruber, U. 1984. Eine neue Grosskopfschildkröte, Platysternon megacephalum tristernalis nov. ssp., aus Yünnan, China. Spixiana 7:67–73.

Schmid, K. 1819. Naturhistorische Beschreibung der Amphibien. Systematisch bearbeitet zum gemeinnützigen Gebrauche. Munchen: Kunst-Anstalt Feyertags-Schule, 95 pp.

Schmidt, K.P. 1925. New reptiles and a new salamander from China. American Museum Novitates 157:1–5.

Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. In: Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Science, Vol. 10, 160 pp.

Schmidt, K.P. 1946. Turtles collected by the Smithsonian Biological Survey of the Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 106(8):1–9.

Schmidt, K.P. 1947. A new kinosternid turtle from Colombia. Fieldiana Zoology 31(13):109–112.

Schmidt, K.P. and Owens, D.W. 1944. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Coahuila, Mexico. Field Museum of Natural History Zoology 29:97–115.

Schnee, P. 1900. Uber eine Sammlung südbrasilianischer Reptilien und Amphibien, nebst Beschreibung einer neuen Schildkröten (Platemys werneri). Zoologischer Anzeiger 23:461–464.

Schneider, J.G. 1783. Allgemeine Naturgeschichte der Schildkröten, nebst einem systematischen Verzeichnisse der einzelnen Arten und zwei Kupfern. Leipzig: J.G. Muller, 364 pp.

Schneider, J.G. 1784. Sammlung vermischter Abhandlungen zur Aufklärung der Zoologie und der Handlungsgeschichte. IV. Beiträge zu der Naturgeschichte der Schildkröten, pp. 304-317.

Schneider, J.G. 1787. Erster Beitrag zur Naturgeschichte der Schildkröten. Leipzig: J.G. Muller, 16 pp.

Schneider, J.G. 1792. Beschreibung und Abbildung einer neuen Art von Wasserschildkröte nebst Bestimmungen einiger bisher wenig bekannten fremden Arten. Schriften der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 10:259–284.

Schoepff, J.D. 1792. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [pp. 1–32].

Schoepff, J.D. 1793. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [pp. 33–80].

Schoepff, J.D. 1795. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [pp. 81–112].

Schoepff, J.D. 1801. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [pp. 113–136].

Schreiber, E. 1875. Herpetologia Europaea: eine systematische Bearbeitung der Amphibien und Reptilien welche bisher in Europa aufgefunden sind. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg und Sohn, 639 pp.

Schreiber, E. 1912. Herpetologia Europaea: eine systematische Bearbeitung der Amphibien und Reptilien welche bisher in Europa aufgefunden sind. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 960 pp.

Schwartz, A. 1955. The diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) of peninsular Florida. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 68:157–164.

Schwartz, A. 1956. Geographic variation in the chicken turtle Deirochelys reticularia Latreille. Fieldiana Zoology 34:461–503.

Schweigger, A.F. 1812. Prodromus monographiae Cheloniorum. Königsberger Archiv für Naturwissenschaftliche und Mathematik 1:271–368, 406–458.

Sclater, P.L. 1870. Remarks on the animals lately described by Dr. Gray as Testudo chilensis and Ateles bartlettii. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)6:470–473.

Seeliger, L.M. 1945. Variation in the Pacific mud turtle. Copeia 1945(3):150–159.

Shaw, G. 1793. Naturalist’s Miscellany. Vol. 4. London: Frederick P. Nodder, 156 pp.

Shaw, G. 1794. Zoology of New Holland. Vol. I. London: J. Davis, 33 pp.

Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Volume III, Part I, Amphibia. London: G. Kearsley, 312 pp.

Shufeldt, R.W. 1919. Observation on the chelonians of North America. IV. Aquatic Life 1919(8):155–157.

Siebenrock, F. 1901. Beschreibung einer neuen Schildkrötengattung aus der Familie Chelydidae von Australien: Pseudemydura. Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) 38(22):248–250.

Siebenrock, F. 1902a. Eine neue Schildkröte aus Madagascar (nach Gerrard). Zoologischer Anzeiger 25(1901)[1902]:6–8.

Siebenrock, F. 1902b. Uber zwei seltene Schildkröten der herpetologischen Sammlung des Wiener Museums. Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) 1902(2):11–13.

Siebenrock, F. 1902c. Zur Systematik der Schildkrötenfamilie Trionychidae Bell, nebst der Beschreibung einer neuen Cyclanorbis Art. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) (1)111:807–846.

Siebenrock, F. 1903a. Schildkröten des östlichen Hinterindien. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) (1)112:333–353.

Siebenrock, F. 1903b. Über zwei seltene und eine neue Schildkröte des Berliner Museums. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) (1)112:439–445.

Siebenrock, F. 1904. Eine neue Testudo-Art der geometrica-Gruppe aus Süd-Afrika. Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) 41:194–195.

Siebenrock, F. 1906a. Zur Kenntnis der Schildkrötenfauna der Insel Hainan. Zoologischer Anzeiger 30:578–586.

Siebenrock, F. 1906b. Eine neue Cinosternum-Art aus Florida. Zoologischer Anzeiger 30:727–728.

Siebenrock, F. 1906c. Schildkröten von Ostafrika und Madagaskar. In: Voeltzkow, A. Reise in Ost-Afrika in den Jahren 1903–1905 mit Mitteln der Hermann und Elise geb. Heckmann-Wentzel-Stiftung. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Systematischen Arbeiten, Stuttgart 2:1–40.

Siebenrock, F. 1907. Die Schildkrötenfamilie Cinosternidae m. Monographisch bearbeitet. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) (1)116:527–599.

Siebenrock, F. 1914. Eine neue Chelodina Art aus Westaustralien. Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Mathemathisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse) 51(17):386–387.

Smith, A. 1838. Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, consisting chiefly of Figures and Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History collected during an Expedition into the Interior of South Africa, in the years 1834, 1835, and 1836. Vol. 3. Reptilia. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 28 pp.

Smith, A. 1839. Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. Reptiles. London: Smith, Elder & Co., plates.

Smith, H.M. and Glass, B.P. 1947. A new musk turtle from the southern United States. Journal of theWashington Academy of Science 37:22–24.

Smith, H.M. and Ramsey, L.W. 1952. A new turtle from Texas. Wasman Journal of Biology 10:45–54.

Smith, M.A. 1916. A list of the crocodiles, tortoises, turtles and lizards at present known to inhabit Siam. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 2:48–57.

Smith, M.A. 1931. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. I. Loricata, Testudines. London: Taylor and Francis, 185 pp.

Smith, P.W. 1951. A new frog and a new turtle from the western Illinois sand prairies. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Science 9:189–199.

Song, M.T. 1984. [A new species of the turtle genus Cuora (Testudoformes: Testudinidae)]. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 9(3):330–332. [in Chinese]

Sonnini, C.S. and Latreille, P.A. 1801. Histoire Naturelle des Reptiles, avec figures dessinées d’après nature. Tome Premier. Première Partie. Quadrupèdes et Bipèdes Ovipares. Paris: Deterville, 280 pp.

Spix, J.B. 1824. Animalia Nova sive Species Novae Testudinum et Ranarum. Monachii: 53 pp.

Stejneger, L. 1902. Some generic names of turtles. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 15:235–238.

Stejneger, L. 1909. Generic names of some Chelyid turtles. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 22:125–128.

Stejneger, L. 1918. Description of a new lizard and a new snapping turtle from Florida. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 31:89–92.

Stejneger, L. 1925. New species and subspecies of American turtles. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 15:462–463.

Stejneger, L. 1933. Description of a new box turtle from Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 46:119–120.

Stejneger, L. 1941. Notes on Mexican turtles of the genus Kinosternon. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 90(3115):457–459.

Stejneger, L. 1944. Notes on the American soft-shelled turtles with special reference to Amyda agassizii. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 94(1):1–75.

Strain, W.S. 1966. Blancan mammalian fauna and Pleistocene formations, Hudspeth County, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Memorial Museum 10:1–31.

Strauch, A. 1862. Chelonologische studien, mit besonderer beziehung auf die Schildkrötensammlung der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu St. Petersburg. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg (7)5(7):1–196.

Strauch, A. 1865. Die Vertheilung der Schildkröten über den Erdball. Ein zoogeographischer versuch. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg (7)8(13):1–207.

Strauch, A. 1890. Bemerkungen über die Schildkrötensammlung im Zoologischen Museum der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu St. Petersburg. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg (7)38(2):1–127.

Suckow, G.A. 1798. Anfangsgründe der theoretischen und angewandten Naturgeschichte der Thiere. Dritter Theil. Von den Amphibien. Leipzig: Weidmannischen Buchhandlung, 298 pp.

Swainson, W. 1839. On the natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. Vol. II. In: Lardner, D. (Ed.). The Cabinet Cyclopaedia. Natural History. London: Longman, 452 pp.

Tang, Y. 1997. Research on a new species of Pelodiscus, Trionychidae, in China. Zoological Research Kunming 18(1):13–17.

Tao, H.J. 1985. New fossil turtles, Chinemys pani n. sp. (Testudinidae) from the Chi-Ting Formation (Pleistocene), Tainan District, Taiwan Island. Journal of the Taiwan Museum 38(1):43–52.

Tao, H.J. 1986. Report of a new fossil soft-shelled turtle, Trionyx liupani from Taiwan, with comparative study to the living species, Trionyx sinensis (Wiegmann). Journal of the Taiwan Museum 39(2):21–41.

Tao, H.J. 1988. New fossil turtle, Ocadia sinensis changwui n. subsp., from Late Pleistocene, Taiwan Strait. Acta Zoologica Taiwanica 2:229–240.

Taylor, E.H. 1920. Philippine turtles. Philippine Journal of Science, Manila 16(2):111–144.

Taylor, E.H. 1943. An extinct turtle of the genus Emys from the Pleistocene of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 29(II)(3):249–254.

Taylor, W.E. 1895. The box turtles of North America. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 17:573–588.

Temminck, C.J. and Schlegel, H. 1834. Reptilia Elaborantibus. I. Chelonii. In: Siebold, P.F. von. Fauna Japonica. Vol. III. Lugduni Batavorum, pp. 1–80.

Theobald, W., Jr. 1868a. Catalogue of Reptiles in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal of the Asiatic Society, Extra Number, 88 pp.

Theobald, W., Jr. 1868b. Catalogue of the reptiles of British Birma, embracing the provinces of Pegu, Martaban, and Tenasserim; with descriptions of new or little-known species. Journal of the Linnean Society of Zoology 10:4–67.

Theobald, W., Jr. 1874. Observations on some Indian and Burmese species of Trionyx. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1874:75–86.

Theobald, W., Jr. 1875. Observations on some Indian and Burmese species of Trionyx, with a rectification of their synonymy and a description of two new species. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1875:170–180.

Theobald, W., Jr. 1876. Descriptive Catalogue of the Reptiles of British India. Calcutta: Thacher, Spink and Co., 238 pp.

Thomson, S. and Georges, A. 2009. Myuchelys gen. nov.—a new genus for Elseya latisternum and related forms of Australian freshwater turtle (Testudines: Pleurodira: Chelidae). Zootaxa 2053:32–42.

Thomson, S., Georges, A., and Limpus, C.J. 2006. A new species of freshwater turtle in the genus Elseya (Testudines: Chelidae) from central coastal Queensland, Australia. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 5(1):74–86.

Thomson, S., Kennett, R., and Georges, A. 2000. A new species of long-necked turtle (Testudines: Chelidae) from the Arnhem Land Plateau, Northern Territory, Australia. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(4):675–685.

Thunberg, C.P. 1787. Beskrifning på trenne sköld-paddor. [Description of three turtles]. Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm (2)8:178–180. [in Swedish]

Thunberg, C.P. 1792. [Testudo scripta]. In: Schoepff, J.D. Historia Testudinum Iconibus Illustrata. Erlangae: Ioannis Iacobi Palm, 136 pp. [pp. 16–17].

Thunberg, C.P. 1812. [Testudo discolor]. In: Schweigger, A.F. Prodromus monographiae Cheloniorum. Königsberger Archiv für Naturwissenschaftliche und Mathematik 1:271–368, 406–458. [p. 302].

Tien, D.V. 1957. [Zoological study in central Vietnam: Vien Linh region in Quang-Tri Province]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 36:1209–1216. [in Russian]

Tinkle, D.W. and Webb, R.G. 1955. A new species of Sternotherus with a discussion of the Sternotherus carinatus complex. Tulane Studies in Zoology 3(3):53–67.

Tirant, G. 1884. Notes sur les reptiles de la Cochinchine et du Cambodge. Excursions et Reconnaissances 8(19):147–168.

Troost, G. 1835. [Chelonura temminckii]. In: Harlan, R. Medical and Physical Researches. Philadelphia: Bailey, 653 pp. [pp. 157–158].

Troschel, F.H. 1848. Amphibien. In: Schomburgk, M.R. Versuch einer Fauna und Flora von Britisch Guiana. Leipzig, Vol. 3, pp. 645–661.

Tschudi, J.J.V. 1846. Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana. Herpetologie. St. Gallen: Scheitlin and Zollikofer, 80 pp.

Vaillant, L. 1885. Sur une tortue terrestre d’espèce nouvelle, rapportée par M. Humbolt au Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences de Paris 101(6):440–441.

Vaillant, L. 1894. Nouvelle espèce du genre Geoemyda trouvée au Tonkin par S.A. le Prince Henri d’Orleans. Bulletin du Société Philomatique de Paris (8)6:68.

Vaillant, L. 1898. Dessins inédits de chéloniens tirés des manuscrits de Commerson. Bulletin du  Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4:133–139.

Vaillant, L. and Grandidier, G. 1910. Histoire naturelle des reptiles. Première partie: crocodiles et tortues. In: Grandidier, A. and Grandidier, G. (Eds.). Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar. Vol. 17. Paris: Hachette, 86 pp.

Valenciennes, A. 1832. [Cistuda hellenica]. In: Bibron, G. and Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B. Vertébrés à sang froid. Reptiles et poissons. In: Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (Ed.). Expédition Scientifique de Morée, Vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 57–65.

Valenciennes, A. 1833. [Emys rivulata, Emys antiquorum]. In: Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B. Vertébrés à sang froid. Reptiles et poissons. In: Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (Ed.). Expédition Scientifique de Morée, Vol. 3, Part 1, Atlas, pl. 9.

Van Denburgh, J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of lower California. Part I – Reptiles. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (2)5:77–162.

Van Denburgh, J. 1907. Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 1905–1906. I. Preliminary descriptions of four new races of gigantic land tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4)1:1–6.

Van Denburgh, J. 1914. Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 1905–1906. X. The gigantic land tortoises of the Galapagos Archipelago. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4)2(1):203–374.

Van-Ernest, H. 1801. [Testudo melanocephala]. In: Daudin, F.M. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles. Tome Second. Paris: Dufart, 432 pp. [p. 128].

Vandelli, D. 1761. Epistola de Holothurio, et Testudine Coriacea ad Celeberrimum Carolum Linnaeum. Patavii [Padova]: Conzatti, 12 pp.

Vanzolini, P.E. 1995. A new species of turtle, genus Trachemys, from the State of Maranhão, Brazil (Testudines, Emydidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 55(1):111–125.

Venzmer, G. 1920. Beobachtungen an der iberischen und an der kaspischen Schildkröte in Cilicien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 51:285–302.

Vilaró, J. 1867a. Notas. In: Poey, F. Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba 2(5):119–122.

Vilaró, J. 1867b. Nota sobre las jicoteas cubanas. In: Poey, F. Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba 2(9):204.

Vogt, T. 1911. Reptilien und Amphibien aus Neu-Guinea. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft der Naturforschende Freunde, Berlin 9:410–414.

Vuillemin, S. 1972a. Note on Testudo morondavaensis sp. nov. Annales de l’Université de Madagascar, Série Sciences de la Nature et Mathématiques 9:127–134.

Vuillemin, S. 1972b. Note sur Madakinixys domerguei n. gen. n. sp. (Testudinidae). Annales de l’Université de Madagascar, Série Sciences de la Nature et Mathématiques 9:169–182.

Vuillemin, S. and Domergue, C. 1972. Contribution to the study of the fauna of Madagascar: description of Pyxoides brygooi gen. et sp. nov. (Testudinidae). Annales de l’Université de Madagascar, Série Sciences de la Nature et Mathématiques 9:193–200.

Wagler, J.G. 1828. Vorlaufige Uebersicht des Gerustes seines Systema Amphibiorum. Isis von Oken 21:859–863.

Wagler, J.G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugthiere und Vögel. München: J.G. Cotta’schen Buchhandlung, 354 pp.

Wagler, J.G. 1833. Descriptiones et Icones Amphibiorum. Tres partes cum XXXVI tabulis. Monachii: J.G. Cottae, 30 plates.

Walbaum, J.J. 1782. Chelonographia oder Beschreibung einiger Schildkröten. Lubeck: J.F. Gleditsch, 132 pp.

Ward, J.P. 1984. Relationships of chrysemyd turtles of North America (Testudines: Emydinae). Special Publications of the Museum of Texas Tech University 21:1–50.

Webb, R.G. 1959. Description of a new softshell turtle from the southeastern United States. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 11(9):517–525.

Webb, R.G. 1962. North American Recent soft-shelled turtles (family Trionychidae). University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 13:429–611.

Webb, R.G. 1980. The identity of Testudo punctata Lacépède, 1788 (Testudines, Trionychidae). Bulletin du Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (4):2A:547–557.

Webb, R.G. 2003. Observations on the giant softshell turtle, Pelochelys cantorii, with description of a new species. Hamadryad 27(1)(2002)[2003]:99–107.

Webb, R.G. and Legler, J.M. 1960. A new softshell turtle (genus Trionyx) from Coahuila, Mexico. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 40(2):21–30.

Weissinger, H. 1987. Testudo graeca anamurensis ssp. nov. aus Kleinasien. ÖGH-Nachrichten, Wien 10/11:14–18.

Wells, R.W. 2002. A new subspecies of Carettochelys (Reptilia: Carettochelydidae) from northern Australia – Carettochelys insculpta canni ssp. nov. Australian Biodiversity Record 2002(1):1–7.

Wells, R.W. 2007a. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural considerations on the Class Reptilia in Australia. Notes on the recently described freshwater turtle Chelodina canni McCord and Thomson, 2002 and a redescription of Chelodina rankini Wells and Wellington, 1985. Australian Biodiversity Record 2007(1):1–5.

Wells, R.W. 2007b. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural considerations on the Class Reptilia in Australia. Some comments on the Elseya dentata (Gray, 1863) complex with redescriptions of the Johnstone River snapping turtle, Elseya stirlingi Wells and Wellington, 1985 and the Alligator Rivers snapping turtle, Elseya jukesi Wells 2002. Australian Biodiversity Record 2007(2):1–12.

Wells, R.W. 2007c. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural considerations on the Class Reptilia in Australia. A new genus of the family Chelidae from eastern Australia. Australian Biodiversity Record 2007(3):1–13.

Wells, R.W. 2009. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural considerations on the Class Reptilia in Australia. A new species of freshwater turtle in the Genus Wollumbinia Wells 2007 (Reptilia: Chelidae) from eastern Australia. Australian Biodiversity Record 2009(1):1–12.

Wells, R.W. and Wellington, C.R. 1985. A classification of the Amphibia and Reptilia of Australia. Australian Journal of Herpetology, Supp. Ser. 1:1–61.

Wermuth, H. 1952. Testudo hermanni robertmertensi n. subsp. und ihr Vorkommen in Spanien. Senckenbergiana 33:157–164.

Wermuth, H. 1969. Eine neue Grosskopfschildkröte, Platysternon megacephalum vogeli n. ssp. Aquarien und Terrarien Zeitschrift 22(12):372–374.

Werner, F. 1897. Die Reptilien und Amphibien Oesterreich-Ungarns und der Occupationsländer. Wien: A. Pichler’s Witwe und Sohn, 160 pp.

Werner, F. 1899. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Reptilien- und Batrachier-fauna der Balkanhalbinsel. Wissenschaften und Mitteilungen aus Bosnien und der Hercegovina 6:817–841.

Werner, F. 1901a. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Ecuador und Neu-Guinea. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft, Wien 51:593–603.

Werner, F. 1901b. Neue Reptilien des Königsberger zoologischen Museums. Zoologischer Anzeiger 24:297–301.

White, A.W. and Archer, M. 1994. Emydura lavarackorum, a new Pleistocene turtle (Pleurodira: Chelidae) from fluviatile deposits at Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Records of the South Australian Museum 27(2):159–167.

White, G. 1836. The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne. Edited by E.T. Bennett. London: J. and A. Arch, 640 pp.

Wied, M. zu. 1839. Reise in des innere Nord-America in den Jahren 1832 bis 1834. Coblenz: J. Hoelscher, 213 pp.

Wied, M. zu. 1865. Verzeichniss der Reptilien, welche auf einer Reise im nördlichen America beobachtet wurden. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum 32:1–143.

Wiedemann, C.R.W. 1802. Anatomische Beschreibung der Schildkröten überhaupt und der getäfelten Schildkröte (T. tessellata Schneid., T. tabulata Walbaum) insbesondere. [1]. Archiv für Zoologie und Zootomie 2:177–210.

Wiegmann, A.F.A. 1828. Beyträge zu Amphibienkunde. Isis von Oken 21:364–383.

Wiegmann, A.F.A. 1835. Beiträge zur Zoologie, gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde von Dr. F.J.F. Meyen. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum 17:183–268.

Wilhelm, G.T. 1794. Unterhaltungen der Naturgeschichte. Amphibien. Augsburg. [p. 133].

Williams, E.E. 1950. Variation and selection in the cervical central articulations of living turtles. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 94:505–562.

Wischuf, T. and Fritz, U. 1996. Eine neue Unterart der Bachschildkröte (Mauremys caspica ventrimaculata subsp. nov.) aus dem Iranischen Hochland. Salamandra 32(2):113–122.

Wischuf, T. and Fritz, U. 1997. [Mauremys caspica siebenrocki]. In: Fritz, U. and Wischuf, T. Zur Systematik westasiatisch–südosteuropäischer Bachschildkröten (Gattung Mauremys) (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 49(13):223–260.

Wussow, W. 1916. Meine Erfahrungen mit Testudo horsfieldi. Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde 13:169–172.

Yasukawa, Y., Ota, H., and Iverson, J.B. 1996. Geographic variation and sexual size dimorphism in Mauremys mutica (Cantor, 1842) (Reptilia: Bataguridae), with description of a new subspecies from the southern Ryukyus, Japan. Zoological Science (Japan) 13:303–317.

Yeh, H.K.U. 1961. The first discovery of a box-turtle in China. Vertebrata Palasiatica 5:58–64.

Zangerl, R. and Medem, F. 1958. A new species of chelid turtle, Phrynops (Batrachemys) dahli, from Colombia. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 119:375–390.

Zhang, M. 1984. A new species of Pelochelys from Zhejiang, with subfossil description. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 3(4):71–76.

Zhao, E. 1990. [Cuora zhoui]. In: Zhao, E., Zhou, T., and Ye, P. A new Chinese box turtle (Testudinata: Emydidae)–Cuora zhoui. In: Zhao, E. (Ed.). From Water Onto Land. Chinese Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Beijing, pp. 213–216. [p. 213].

Zhou, G., Zhang, X., and Fang, Z. 1991. Bulletin of a new species Trionyx. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Normalis Hunanensis, Hunan Changsha 14(4):379–382.


 

(2) ADDITIONAL LITERATURE CITED IN THE
INTRODUCTION AND ANNOTATIONS
OF ALL OUR CHECKLISTS

TTWG 2007b, Rhodin et al. 2008, TTWG 2009, TTWG 2010


 

Additional Literature Cited 
in TTWG 2007b

Adler, K. 2007. The development of systematic reviews of the turtles of the world. Vertebrate Zoology 57(2):139-148.

Attum, O., Baha el Din, S., Carranza, S., Earley, R., Arnold, E.N., and Kingsbury, B. 2007. An evaluation of the taxonomic validity of Testudo werneri. Amphibia-Reptilia 28(3):393-401.

Austin, J.J., and Arnold, E.N. 2001. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and morphology elucidate an extinct island radiation of Indian Ocean giant tortoises (Cylindraspis). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 268B:2515-2523.

Austin, J.J., Arnold, E.N., and Bour, R. 2003. Was there a second adaptive radiation of giant tortoises in the Indian Ocean? Using mitochondrial DNA to investigate speciation and biogeography of Aldabrachelys (Reptilia, Testudinidae). Molecular Ecology 12:1415-1424.

Baha El Din, S. 2006. A guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Egypt. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, pp. 359.

Barth, D., Bernhard, D., Guicking, D., Stöck, M., and Fritz, U.  2003. Is Chinemys megalocephala Fang, 1934 a valid species? New insights based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Salamandra 38(2002)[2003]:233–244.

Barth, D., Bernhard, D., Fritzsch, G., and Fritz, U. 2004. The freshwater turtle genus Mauremys (Testudines, Geoemydidae) – a textbook example of an east–west disjunction or a taxonomic misconcept? Zoologica Scripta 33:213–221.

Berry, J.F., Seidel, M.E., and Iverson, J.B. 1997. A new species of mud turtle (genus Kinosternon) from Jalisco and Colima, Mexico, with notes on its natural history. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(3):329-337.

Bickham, J.W., Lamb, T., Minx, P., and Patton, J.C. 1996. Molecular systematics of the genus Clemmys and the intergeneric relationships of emydid turtles. Herpetologica 52:89–97.

Bour, R. 2006. Identity of Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 and rediscovery of the type specimen. Emys 13:12-23.

Bour, R. and Dubois, A. 1986. Nomenclature ordinale et familiale des tortues (Reptilia). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 55:87-90.

Bowen, B.W., Meylan, A.B., Ross, J.P., Limpus, C.J., Balazs, G.H., and Avise, J.C. 1992. Global population structure and natural history of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in terms of matriarchal phylogeny. Evolution 46:865-881.

Boycott, R.C., and Bourquin, O. 2000. The Southern African Tortoise Book. A Guide to Southern African Tortoises, Terrapins and Turtles. Revised expanded edition. Pietermaritzburg: Interpak, 228 pp.

Branch, W.R. 1989. Homopus bergeri, nama or Berger's padloper (English), Bergerse skilpad (Afrikaans). In: Swingland, I.R. and Klemens, M.W. (Eds.). The Conservation Biology of Tortoises. Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 5, pp. 75-77.

Branch, W.R. 1992. Homopus 'bergeri' – a wrong name for a new tortoise from southern Namibia. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 40:11.

Broadley, D.G. 1989. Geochelone pardalis, leopard tortoise (English), bergskilpad (Afrikaans). In: Swingland, I.R. and Klemens, M.W. (Eds.). The Conservation Biology of Tortoises. Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 5, pp. 43-46.

Broadley, D.G. 1993. A review of the southern African species of Kinixys Bell (Reptilia, Testudinidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum 36(6):41-52.

Brophy, T.R. 2004. Geographic variation and systematics in the south-east Asian turtles of the genus Malayemys (Testudines: Bataguridae). Hamadryad 29:63-79.

Burke, R.L., Leuteritz, T.E., and Wolf, A.E. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of emydine turtles. Herpetologica 52:572-584.

Cabrera, M.R. 1998. Las Tortugas Continentales de Sudamerica Austral. Córdoba: BR Copias, pp. 108.

Cabrera, M.R., and Colantonio, S.E. 1997. Taxonomic revision of the South American subspecies of the turtle Kinosternon scorpioides. Journal of Herpetology 31: 507-513.

Caccone, A., Gibbs, J.P., Ketmaier, V., Suatoni, E., and Powell, J.R. 1999. Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galápagos tortoises. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:13223-13228.

Caccone, A., Gentile, G., Gibbs, J.P., Fritts, T.H., Snell, H.L., and Powell, J.R. 2002. Phylogeography and history of giant Galápagos tortoises. Evolution 56:2052-2066.

Carretero, M.A., Znari, M., Harris, D.J., and Macé, J.C. 2005. Morphological divergence among populations of Testudo graeca from west-central Morocco. Animal Biology 55:259-279.

Chen, H.G., Liu, W.B., and Zhang, X.J. 2005. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA 12S rRNA region between Pelodiscus sinensis and Pelodiscus axenaria and their molecular marker for identification. J. Fisheries China 29:318-322.

Chen, H.G., Liu, W.B., Li, J.Z., and Zhang, X.J. 2006. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytb gene and their molecular identification markers in three species of soft-turtles. Shuisheng Shengwu Xuebao 30:380-385.

Chiari, Y., Thomas, M., Pedrono, M., and Vieites, D.R. 2005. Preliminary data on genetic differentiation within the Madagascar spider tortoise, Pyxis arachnoides (Bell, 1827). Salamandra 41:35-43.

Das, I. 2001. Die Schildkröten des Indischen Subkontinents. Frankfurt am Main: Chimaira, pp. 181.

David, P. 1994. Liste des reptiles actuels du monde. I. Chelonii. Dumérilia 1:7–127.

del Barco, D.M., and Larriera, A. 1993. Sobre la validez de las subespecies de Trachemys dorbignyi y su distribución geographica. Revista Asoc. Cienc. Nat. Litoral 22(2)[1991]:11-17.

Devaux, B. 2007. La tortue géante de Seychelles, une survivante: Dipsochelys elephantina (Duméril et Bibron, 1835). Chelonii 5:1-120.

Engstrom, T.N., Shaffer, H.B., and McCord, W.P. 2004. Multiple data sets, high homoplasy, and the phylogeny of softshell turtles (Testudines: Trionychidae). Systematic Biology 53:693-710.

Ernst, C.H. 1990. Pseudemys gorzugi. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 461:1-2.

Ernst, C.H. and Barbour, R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 313 pp.

Ernst, C.H., and Laemmerzahl, A. 2002. Geographic variation in the Asian big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum (Reptilia: Testudines: Platysternidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115:18-24.

Ernst, C.H., Laemmerzahl, A.F., and Creque, T.R. 2006. A review of morphological and pattern variation in the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, in Missouri, USA, with an alternate hypothesis of the origin of Chrysemys picta marginata. Herpetological Bulletin 95:6-15.

Farkas, B.L. 1992. Wiederentdeckung eines Exemplars von Rafetus swinhoei (Gray, 1873) im Naturhistorischen Museum Wien. Salamandra 28(2):145-152.

Farkas, B. and Webb, R.G. 2003. Rafetus leloii Ha Dinh Duc, 2000 – an invalid species of softshell turtle from Hoan Kiem Lake, Hanoi, Vietnam (Reptilia, Testudines, Trionychidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 53:107-112.

Feldman, C.R., and Parham, J.F. 2002. A molecular phylogeny for emydine turtles: taxonomic revision and the evolution of shell kinesis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22:388–398.

Feldman, C.R., and Parham, J.F. 2004. Molecular systematics of Old World stripe-necked turtles (Testudines: Mauremys). Asiatic Herpetological Research 10:28–37.

Fernández, M.S. 1988. Las Testudinidae (Reptilia: Chelonii) argentinas: osteología, sistemática y distribución geográfica. Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Nac. de La Plata.

Flores-Villela, O.A. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de Mexico, cambios taxonomicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 17:1-73.

Fong, J.J., Parham, J.F., and Fu, J. 2002. A reassessment of the distribution of Cuora flavomarginata Gray 1863 on mainland China. Russian Journal of Herpetology 9:9-14.

Frazier, J. 2006. A neotype for the Aldabra tortoise, Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812. Herpetological Review 37:275-280.

Fritz, U. 1998. Introduction to zoogeography and subspecific differentiation in Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Fritz, U., Joger, U., Podloucky, R., and Servan, J. (Eds.). Proceedings of the EMYS Symposium Dresden 96. Mertensiella 10:1-27.

Fritz, U. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2007. When genes meet nomenclature: tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone. Zoology 110:298-307.

Fritz, U., and Havas, P. 2006. Checklist of Chelonians of the World, at the request of the CITES Nomenclature Committee and the German Agency for Nature Conservation. Dresden: German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and Museum of Zoology, 230 pp.

Fritz, U., and Havas, P. 2007. Checklist of Chelonians of the World.  Vertebrate Zoology 57(2):149-368.

Fritz, U. and Obst, F.J. 1996. Zur Kenntnis der Celebes-Erdschildkröte, Heosemys yuwonoi (McCord, Iverson and Boeadi, 1995). Herpetofauna 18(102):27-34.

Fritz, U. and Pauler, I. 1999. Phrynops chacoensis Fritz & Pauler, 1992, ein Juniorsynonym von Platemys macrocephala Rhodin, Mittermeier & McMorris, 1984. Salamandra 35(1):53-56.

Fritz, U., Gaulke, M., and Lehr, E. 1997. Revision der südostasiatischen Dornschildkröten-Gattung Cyclemys Bell, 1834, mit Beschreibung einer neuen Art. Salamandra 33(3):183-212.

Fritz, U., Siroky, P., Kami, H., and Wink, M. 2005b. Environmentally caused dwarfism or a valid species—is Testudo weissingeri Bour, 1996 a distinct evolutionary lineage? New evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear genomic markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37:389-401.

Fritz, U., Barata, M., Busack, S.D., Fritzsch, G., and Castillo, R. 2006a. Impact of mountain chains, sea straits and peripheral populations on genetic and taxonomic structure of a freshwater turtle, Mauremys leprosa (Reptilia, Testudines, Geoemydidae). Zoologica Scripta 35:97-108.

Fritz, U., Auer, M., Bertolero, A., Cheylan, M., Fattizzo, T., Hundsdörfer, A.K., Sampayo, M.M., Pretus, J.L., Siroky, P., and Wink, M. 2006b. A rangewide phylogeography of Hermann’s tortoise, Testudo hermanni (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae): implications for taxonomy. Zoologica Scripta 35:531-543.

Fritz, U., Petzold, A., and Auer, M. 2006c. Osteology in the Cuora galbinifrons complex suggests conspecifity of C. bourreti and C. galbinifrons, with notes on shell osteology and phalangeal formulae within the Geoemydidae. Amphibia-Reptilia 27:195-205.

Fritz, U., Hundsdörfer, A.K., Siroky, P., Auer, M., Kami, H., Lehmann, J., Mazanaeva, L.F., Türkozan, O., and Wink, M. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity leads to incongruence between morphology-based taxonomy and genetic differentiation in western Palearctic tortoises (Testudo graeca complex; Testudines, Testudinidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 28:97-121.

Gasperetti, J., Stimson, A.F., Miller, J.D., Ross, J.P., and Gasperetti, P.R. 1993. Turtles of Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 13:170-367.

Georges, A., and Adams, M. 1996. Electrophoretic delineation of species boundaries within the short-necked chelid turtles of Australia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 118:241-260.

Georges, A., and Thomson, S. 2006. Evolution and zoogeography of Australian freshwater turtles. In: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M., and Lee, M.S.Y. (Eds.). Evolution and Biogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Sydney: Australian Scientific Publishing, pp. 291-308.

Georges, A., Birrell, J., Saint, K., McCord, W.P., and Donnellan, S. 1998. A phylogeny for side-necked turtles (Chelonia: Pleurodira) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence variation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 67:213-246.

Georges, A., Adams, M., and McCord, W. 2002. Electrophoretic delineation of species boundaries within the genus Chelodina (Testudines: Chelidae) of Australia, New Guinea and Indonesia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 134:401-421.

Georges, A., Guarino, F., and Bito, B. 2006. Freshwater turtles of the TransFly region of Papua New Guinea – notes on diversity, distribution, reproduction, harvest and trade. Wildlife Research 33:373-384.

Gerlach, J. 2001. Tortoise phylogeny and the ‘Geochelone’ problem. Phelsuma 9a:1-24.

Gerlach, J. 2004. Giant Tortoises of the Indian Ocean. The genus Dipsochelys inhabiting the Seychelles Islands and the extinct giants of Madagascar and the Mascarenes. Frankfurt: Chimaira, 208 pp.

Gerlach, J., and Bour, R. 2003. Morphology of hatchling giant tortoises. Radiata 12:11-12.

Gerlach, J., and Canning, L. 1998. Taxonomy of Indian Ocean Giant tortoises (Dipsochelys). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3:3-19.

Gerlach, J., and Canning, L. 2001. Range contractions in the critically endangered Seychelles terrapins (Pelusios spp.). Oryx 35:313-321.

Gmira, S. 1993. Une nouvelle espéce de tortue Testudininei (Testudo kenitrensis n. sp.) de l’inter Amirien-Tensiftien de Kénitra (Maroc). Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences Série II 316:701–707.

Gmira, S. 1995. Étude des Chéloniens Fossiles du Maroc. Paris: Cahier de Paléontologie, 140 pp.

Grandidier, A. 1868. Sur les découvertes zoologiques faites récemment à Madagascar. Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. Paris 10:375-378.

Guicking, D., Fritz, U., Wink, M., and Lehr, E. 2002. New data on the diversity of the Southeast Asian leaf turtle genus Cyclemys Bell, 1834. Molecular results (Reptilia: Testudines: Geoemydidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 23:75-86.

Guo, C.-W., Nie, L.-W., and Wang, M. 1997. The karyotypes and NORs of two species of Chinemys. In: Zhao, E. (Ed.). Chinese Chelonian Research. Chinese Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Series No. 9, Sichuan Journal of Zoology 15 (Suppl.):97-104.

Harris, D.J., Znari, M., Mace, J.C., and Carretero, M.A. 2003. Genetic variation in Testudo graeca from Morocco estimated using 12S rRNA DNA sequencing. Revista Española de Herpetología 16:5-9.

He, J., Zhou, T., Rao, D.-Q., and Zhang, Y.-P. 2007. [Studies on the molecular identification and phylogeny of Cuora yunnanensis.] Chinese Science Bulletin 52(17):2085-2088.

Holman, J.A. and Fritz, U. 2001. A new emydine species from the Middle Miocene (Barstovian) of Nebraska, USA with a new generic arrangement for the species of Clemmys sensu McDowell (1964) (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 51:331-354.

Honda, M., Yasukawa, Y., Hirayama, R., and Ota, H. 2002a. Phylogenetic relationships of the Asian box turtles of the genus Cuora sensu lato (Reptilia: Bataguridae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Zoological Science 19:1305–1312.

Honda, M., Yasukawa, Y., and Ota, H. 2002b. Phylogeny of Eurasian freshwater turtles of the genus Mauremys Gray 1869 (Testudines), with special reference to a close affinity of Mauremys japonica with Chinemys reevesii. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40:195-200.

Hoogmoed, M.S. and Crumly, C.R. 1984. Land tortoise types in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie with comments on nomenclature and systematics (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae). Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden 58:241-259.

Iverson, J.B. 1986. A Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World. Richmond, IN: Privately Printed, 283 pp.

Iverson, J.B. 1991. Phylogenetic hypotheses for the evolution of modern kinosternine turtles. Herpetological Monographs 4:1-27.

Iverson, J.B. 1998. Molecules, morphology, and mud turtle phylogenetics (family Kinosternidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(1):113-117.

Iverson, J.B. 1992. A revised checklist with distribution maps of the turtles of the world. Richmond, IN: Privately published, 374 pp.

Iverson, J.B. and McCord, W.P. 1994. Variation in east Asian turtles of the genus Mauremys (Bataguridae; Testudines). Journal of Herpetology 28(2):178-187.

Iverson, J.B, Ernst, C.H., Gotte, S., and Lovich, J.E. 1989. The validity of Chinemys megalocephala (Testudines: Batagurinae). Copeia 1989:494-498.

Iverson, J.B., Kimerling, J., Kiester, A.R., Hughes, L.E., and Nicolello, J. 2001a. Turtles of the World. [//emys.geo.orst.edu].

Iverson, J.B., Thomson, S.A., and Georges, A. 2001b. Validity of taxonomic changes for turtles proposed by Wells and Wellington. Journal of Herpetology 35:361-368.

Iverson, J.B., Spinks, P.Q., Shaffer, H.B., McCord, W.P., and Das, I. 2001c. Phylogenetic relationships among the Asian tortoises of the genus Indotestudo (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae). Hamadryad 26(2):272-275.

Iverson, J.B., Brown, R.M., Akre, T.S., Near, T.J., Le, M., Thomson, R.C., and Starkey, D.E. 2007. In search of the tree of life for turtles. Chelonian Research Monographs 4:85-106.

Jackson, D.R. 1995. Systematics of the Pseudemys concinna-floridana complex (Testudines: Emydidae): an alternative interpretation. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(4):329-333.

Karl, S.A., and Bowen, B.W. 1999. Evolutionary significant units versus geopolitical taxonomy: molecular systematics of an endangered sea turtle (genus Chelonia). Conservation Biology 13: 990-999.

Krenz, J.G., Naylor, G.J.P., Shaffer, H.B., and Janzen, F.J. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of turtles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37:178-191.

Lapparent de Broin, F. de. 2000a. Les chéloniens de Sansan. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire Naturelle 183:219–261.

Lapparent de Broin, F. de. 2000b. African chelonians from the Jurassic to the present. A preliminary catalog of the African fossil chelonians. Palaeontologica Africana 36:43–82.

Le, M., McCord, W.P., and Iverson, J.B. 2007. On the paraphyly of the genus Kachuga (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45:398-404.

Lenk, P., Fritz, U., Joger, U., and Wink, M. 1999. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus 1758). Molecular Ecology 8:1911–1922.

McDowell, S.B. 1964. Partition of the genus Clemmys and related problems in the taxonomy of the aquatic Testudinidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 143:239–279.

Mertens, R. and Wermuth, H. 1955. Die rezenten Schildkröten, Krokodile und Brückenechsen. Eine kritische Liste der heute lebenden Arten und Rassen. Zoologische Jahrbücher 83:323-440.

Mittermeier, R.A., and Wilson, R.A. 1974. Redescription of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824), an Amazonian pelomedusid turtle. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 28(8):147-162.

Okayama, T., Díaz-Fernandez, R., Baba, Y., Halim, M., Abe, O., Azeno, N., and Koike, H. 1999. Genetic diversity of the hawksbill turtle in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean regions. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3:362-367.

Palkovacs, E.P., Gerlach, J., and Caccone, A. 2002. The evolutionary origin of Indian Ocean tortoises (Dipsochelys). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24:216-227.

Palkovacs, E.P., Marschner, M., Ciofi, C., Gerlach, J., and Caccone, A. 2003. Are the native giant tortoises from the Seychelles really extinct? A genetic perspective based on mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Ecology 12:1403-1413.

Parham, J.F., and Feldman, C.R. 2002. Generic revisions of emydine turtles. Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 6:28–30.

Parham, J.F., and Zug, G.R. 1996. Chelonia agassizii – valid or not? Marine Turtle Newsletter 72:2-5.

Parham, J.F., Simison, W.B., Kozak, K.H., Feldman, C.R., and Shi, H. 2001. New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis, and known locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4:357-367.

Parham, J.F., Stuart, B.L., Bour, R., and Fritz, U. 2004. Evolutionary distinctiveness of the extinct Yunnan box turtle revealed by DNA from an old museum specimen. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B: Biology Letters 271(1556[S6]):391-394.

Parham, J.F., Feldman, C.R., and Boore, J.L. 2006a. The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic bigheaded turtle (Platysternon): description of unusual genomic features and the reconciliation of phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6(11):1-11.

Parham, J.F., Macey, J.R., Papenfuss, T.J., Feldman, C.R., Türkozan, O., Polymeni, R., and Boore, J.L. 2006b. The phylogeny of Mediterranean tortoises and their close relatives based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences from museum specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38:50-64.

Parham, J.F., Türkozan, O., Stuart, B.L., Arakelyan, M., Shafei, S., Macey, J.R., and Papenfuss, T.J. 2006c. Genetic evidence for premature taxonomic inflation in Middle Eastern tortoises. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 57(3):955-963.

Perälä, J. 2002a. The genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae): phylogenetic inferences. Chelonii 3:32-39.

Perälä, J. 2002b. Biodiversity in relatively neglected taxa of Testudo L., 1758 S. L. Chelonii 3:40-53.

Phillips, C.A., Dimmick, W.W., and Carr, J.L. 1996. Conservation genetics of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Conservation Biology 10:397-405.

Praschag, P. and Gemel, R. 2002. Identity of the black softshell turtle Aspideretes nigricans (Anderson, 1875), with remarks on related species. Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 23:87-116.

Praschag, P., Hundsdörfer, A.K., Reza, A.H.M.A., and Fritz, U. 2007a. Genetic evidence for wild-living Aspideretes nigricans and a molecular phylogeny of South Asian softshell turtles (Reptilia: Trionychidae: Aspideretes, Nilssonia). Zoologica Scripta 36(4):301-310.

Praschag, P., Hundsdörfer, A.K., and Fritz, U. 2007b. Phylogeny and taxonomy of endangered South and South-east Asian freshwater turtles elucidated by mtDNA sequence variation (Testudines: Geoemydidae: Batagur, Callagur, Hardella, Kachuga, Pangshura). Zoologica Scripta 36(5):429-442.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 1967. Living Turtles of the World. Jersey City: TFH Publ., 288 pp.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 1990. Turtles of the world (book review). Copeia 1990: 62-67.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 2000. Indotestudo travancorica…a valid species of tortoise? Reptile and Amphibian Hobbyist 5(6):18-28.

Rhodin, A.G.J., and Genorupa, V.R. 2000. Conservation status of freshwater turtles in Papua New Guinea. In: van Dijk, P.P., Stuart, B.L., and Rhodin, A.G.J. (Eds.). Asian Turtle Trade: Proceedings of a Workshop on Conservation and Trade of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Asia. Chelonian Research Monographs 2:129-136.

Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Carr, J.L., Mittermeier, R.A., Rodríguez-Mahecha, J.V., Mast, R.B., Vogt, R.C., Rhodin, A.G.J., de la Ossa-Velásquez, J., Rueda, J.N., and Mittermeier, C.G. 2007. Las tortugas y los cocodrilianos de los países andinos del trópico. Bogotá, Colombia: Editorial Panamericana, Formas e Impresos, Serie de guías tropicales de campo No. 6, Conservación Internacional, 538 pp.

Russello, M.A., Glaberman, S., Gibbs, J.P., Marquez, C., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2005. A cryptic taxon of Galápagos tortoise in conservation peril. Biological Letters 1:287-290.

Russello, M.A., Beheregaray, L.B., Gibbs, J.P., Fritts, T., Havill, N., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2007. Lonesome George is not alone among Galápagos tortoises. Current Biology 17(9):R317-R318.

Rust, H.T., Mertens, R., and Muller, L. 1934. Systematische Liste der Lebenden Schildkröten. Blatt. Aquar. Terrarienknd. 45:42-45,59-67.

Schleich, H.H. and Kästle, W. (Eds.). 2002. Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. Biology, Systematics, Field Guide. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books, pp. 1201.

Seidel, M.E. 1994. Morphometric analysis and taxonomy of cooter and red-bellied turtles in the North American genus Pseudemys (Emydidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(2):117-130.

Seidel, M.E. 1995. How many species of cooter turtles and where is the scientific evidence? – A reply to Jackson. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(4):333-336.

Seidel, M.E. 2002. Taxonomic observations on extant species and subspecies of slider turtles, genus Trachemys. Journal of Herpetology 36:285–292.

Seidel, M.E., Iverson, J.B., and Adkins, M.D. 1986. Biochemical comparisons and phylogenetic relationships in the family Kinosternidae (Testudines). Copeia 1986(2):285-294.

Serb, J.M., Phillips, C.A., and Iverson, J.B. 2001. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Kinosternon flavescens based on complete mitochondrial control region sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18:149-162.

Shaffer, H.B., Meylan, P., and McKnight, M.L. 1997. Test of turtle phylogeny: molecular, morphological, and paleontological approaches. Systematic Biology 46:235–268.

Shaffer, H.B., Starkey, D.E., and Fujita, M.K.. In press. Molecular insights into the systematics of the snapping turtles (Chelydridae). In: Steyermark, A.C., Finkler, M.S., and Brooks, R.J. (Eds.), The Biology of the Snapping Turtle. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Siroky, P., and Fritz, U. 2007. Is Testudo werneri a distinct species? Biologia (Bratislava) Section Zoology 62(2):1-4.

Smith, H.M., Humphrey, R., and Chiszar, D. 1996. A range extension for the box turtle Terrapene yucatana. Bulletin Maryland Herpetological Society 32:14-15.

Spinks, P.Q. and Shaffer, H.B. 2005. Range-wide molecular analysis of the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata): cryptic variation, isolation by distance, and their conservation implications. Molecular Ecology 14:2047-2064.

Spinks, P.Q. and Shaffer, H.B. 2007. Conservation phylogenetics of the Asian box turtles (Geoemydidae, Cuora): mitochondrial introgression, numts, and inferences from multiple nuclear loci. Conservation Genetics 8:641-657.

Spinks, P.Q., Shaffer, H.B., Iverson, J.B., and Mccord, W.P. 2004. Phylogenetic hypotheses for the turtle family Geoemydidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32:164–182.

Starkey, D.E., Shaffer, H.B., Burke, R.R., Forstner, M.R.J., Iverson, J.B., Janzen, F.J., Rhodin, A.G.J., and Ultsch, G.R. 2003. Molecular systematics, phylogeography, and the effects of Pleistocene glaciation in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) complex. Evolution 57:119-128.

Stephens, P.R., and Wiens, J.J. 2003. Ecological diversification and phylogeny of emydid turtles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79:577-610.

Stuart, B.L. and Parham, J.F. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the critically endangered Indochinese box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31:164-177.

Stuart, B.L. and Parham, J.F. 2007. Recent hybrid origin of three rare Chinese turtles. Conservation Genetics 8:169-175.

Thomson, S.A. 2000. On the identification of the holotype of Chelodina oblonga (Testudines: Chelidae) with a discussion of the taxonomic implications. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3:745-749.

Thomson, S.A. 2006. Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines): proposed precedence over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841. ICZN Case 3351. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 63:187-193.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Bickham, J.W., Parham, J.F., Philippen, H.D., Rhodin, A.G.J., Shaffer, H.B., Spinks, P.Q., and van Dijk, P.P.]. 2007. Turtle taxonomy: methodology, recommendations, and guidelines. Chelonian Research Monographs 4:73-84.

Vaillant, L. 1885b. Remarques complémentaires sur les tortues gigantesque de Madagascar. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 100:874-877.

van der Kuyl, A.C., Ballasina, D.L.P., Dekker, J.T., Maas, J., Willemsen, R.E., and Goudsmit, J. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 174–183.

van der Kuyl, A.C., Ballasina, D.L.P., and Zorgdrager, F. 2005. Mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the tortoise species Testudo graeca from North Africa and the Middle East. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5:1–8.

Walker, D., Orti, G., and Avise, J.C. 1998. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of a threatened aquatic turtle (Sternotherus depressus). Conservation Biology 12:639-645.

Webb, R.G. 1995. The date of publication of Gray’s Catalogue of Shield Reptiles. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1:322-323.

Wermuth, H. and Mertens, R. 1961. Schildkröten. Krokodile. Brückenechsen. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 422 pp.

Wermuth, H. and Mertens, R. 1977. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhyncocephalia. Das Tierrech. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 100 pp.

Wink, M., Guicking, D., and Fritz, U. 2001. Molecular evidence for hybrid origin of Mauremys iversoni Pritchard et McCord, 1991, and Mauremys pritchardi McCord, 1997 (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zoologische Abhandlungen Mus. Tierk. Dresden 51:41-49.

Yasukawa, Y. and Ota, H. 1999. Geographic variation and biogeography of the geoemydine turtles (Testudines: Bataguridae) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. In: Ota, H. (ed.). Tropical Island Herpetofauna: Origin, Current Diversity, and Conservation. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 271-297.

Yasukawa, Y., Ota, H., and Hikida, T. 1992. Taxonomic re-evaluation of the two subspecies of Geoemyda spengleri (Gmelin, 1789) (Reptilia: Emydidae). Japanese Journal of Herpetology 14(3):143-159.

Zhang, M., Zong, Y., and Ma, J. 1998. Fauna Sinica. Reptilia Vol. 1. General Accounts of Reptilia. Testudoformes and Crocodiliformes. Beijing: Science Press, 213 pp.

Zhao, E. 1997. Studies on taxonomy and distribution of Chinese chelonians. In: Zhao, E. (Ed.). Chinese Chelonian Research. Chinese Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Series No. 9, Sichuan Journal of Zoology 15 (Suppl.):1-26.

Zhao, E., Zhou, J., and Zhou, T. (Eds.) 1997. Chinese Chelonian Research. Chinese Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Series No. 9, Sichuan Journal of Zoology 15 (Suppl.), 159 pp.

Zhou, T. 2005. Discovery of a living male Yunnan box turtle, Cuora yunnanensis Boulenger, 1906. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 24(3):345-346.

Zhou, T. and Zhao, E.M. 2004. On the occurrence of living Cuora yunnanensis since fifty-eight years, and its description. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 23:325-327.

Zong, Y. and Pan, L. 1989. Studies on the genus Cuora of the Testudoformes. In: Matsui, M., Hikida, T. and Goris, R.C. (Eds.). Current Herpetology in East Asia. Proceedings of the second Japan-China Herpetological Symposium, Kyoto, July 1988. Herpetological Society of Japan 1989:198.

 


 

Additional Literature Cited
in Rhodin et al. 2008

Barrio-Amorós, C.L. and Narbaiza, I. 2008. Die Schildkröten des Bundesstaates Amazonas (Venezuela). Radiata 17(1):2-20.

 

Bour, R. 2006. Identity of Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 and rediscovery of the type specimen. Emys 13:12-23.

Bour, R. and Dubois, A. 1983. Statut nomenclatural et spécimens-types d`Emys pseudogeographica Gray, 1831 et d`Emys lesueuri Gray, 1831 (Reptilia, Chelonii, Emydidae). Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 52:42-46.

Cerdá-Ardura, A., Soberón-Mobarak, F., Mcgaugh, S.E., and Vogt, R.C. 2008. Apalone spinifera atra (Webb and Legler 1960) – black spiny softshell turtle, Cuatrociénegas softshell, tortuga concha blanda, tortuga negra de Cuatrociénegas. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., and Iverson, J.B. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 021.1-021.4, doi:10.3854/crm.5.021.atra.v1.2008, //iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.

Ernst, C.H., Laemmerzahl, A.F., and Lovich, J.E. 2008. A morphological review of the Cuora flavomarginata complex (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 121:391-397.

Flores-Villela, O.A. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de Mexico, cambios taxonomicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., Spec. Publ. 17:1-73.

Frazier, J. 2006. A neotype for the Aldabra tortoise, Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812. Herpetological Review 37:275-280.

Frazier, J. 2008. Case 3463: Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 (Reptilia, Testudines): proposed conservation of usage. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. In press.

Fritz, U. and Havas, P. 2007. Checklist of Chelonians of the World. Vertebrate Zoology 57(2):149-368.

Georges, A., Adams, M., and McCord, W. 2002. Electrophoretic delineation of species boundaries within the genus Chelodina (Testudines: Chelidae) of Australia, New Guinea and Indonesia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 134:401-421.

Georges, A., Doody, J.S., Eisemberg, C., Alacs, E.A., and Rose, M. 2008. Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay 1886 – pig-nosed turtle, Fly River turtle. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., and Iverson, J.B. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 009.1-009.17, doi:10.3854/crm.5.009.insculpta.v1.2008, //iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt.

Holbrook, J.E. 1842. North American Herpetology; or, a Description of the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Ed. 2, Vol. 1. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 152 pp.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1963. Opinion 660. Suppression under the plenary powers of seven specific names of turtles (Reptilia, Testudines). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 20:187-190.

McCord, W.P., Joseph-Ouni, M., and Tabaka, C. 2005. Chelonian illustrations #18: African hinge-back tortoises. Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 38:71-74.

McGaugh, S.E. 2008. Color variation among habitat types in the spiny softshell turtles (Trionychidae: Apalone) of Cuatrociénegas, Coahuila, Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 42(2):347-353.

McGaugh, S.E. and Janzen, F.J. 2008. The status of Apalone atra populations in Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico: preliminary data. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 7(1):88-95.

McGaugh, S.E., Eckerman, C.M., and Janzen, F.J. 2008. Molecular phylogeography of Apalone spinifera (Reptilia, Trionychidae). Zoologica Scripta 37(3):289-304.

Praschag, P., Sommer, R.S., McCarthy, C., Gemel, R., and Fritz, U. 2008. Naming one of the world's rarest chelonians, the southern Batagur. Zootaxa 1758:61-68.

Rhodin, A.G.J. and Carr, J.L. In press. A quarter millenium of uses and misuses of the turtle name Testudo scabra: identification of the type specimens of T. scabra Linnaeus 1758 and T. scripta Thunberg in Schoepff 1792. Zootaxa.

Seidel, M.E. 1988. Trachemys decussata. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 440:1-3.

Shaffer, H.B., Starkey, D.E., and Fujita, M.K. 2008. Molecular insights into the systematics of the snapping turtles (Chelydridae). In: Steyermark, A.C., Finkler, M.S., and Brooks, R.J. (Eds.). Biology of the Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 44-49.

Shi, H., Fong, J.J., Parham, J.F., Pang, J., Wang, J., Hong, M., and Zhang, Y.-P. 2008. Mitochondrial variation of the ‘‘eyed” turtles (Sacalia) based on known-locality and trade specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49:1025-1029.

Stejneger, L. and Barbour, T. 1917. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 125 pp.

Stuart, B.L. and Fritz, U. 2008. Historical DNA from museum type specimens clarifies diversity of Asian leaf turtles (Cyclemys). Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 94:131-141.

Thomson, S. 2000. The identification of the holotype of Chelodina oblonga (Testudines: Chelidae) with a discussion of taxonomic implications. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(4):745-749.

Thomson, S.A. 2006. ICZN Case 3351. Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines): proposed precedence over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 63(3):187-193.

Thomson, S.A. 2007. Comment on the proposed precedence of Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines) over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 64:127-128.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Bickham, J.W., Iverson, J.B., Parham, J.F., Philippen, H.-D., Rhodin, A.G.J., Shaffer, H.B., Spinks, P.Q., and van Dijk, P.P.]. 2007. An annotated list of modern turtle terminal taxa with comments on areas of taxonomic instability and recent change. In: Shaffer, H.B., FitzSimmons, N.N., Georges, A., and Rhodin, A.G.J. (Eds.). Defining Turtle Diversity: Proceedings of a Workshop on Genetics, Ethics, and Taxonomy of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 4, pp. 173-199.

Vasilyev, V.A., Bondarenko, D.A., Peregontsev, E.A., Voronov, A.S., Ryskov, A.P., and Semenova, S.K. 2008. Polymorphism of the 12S rRNA gene and phylogeography of the Central Asian tortoises Agrionemys horsfieldii Gray, 1844. Genetika 44:784-788; Russian Journal of Genetics 44:682-685.


 

Additional Literature Cited
in TTWG 2009

Barley, A.J., Spinks, P.Q., Thomson, R.C., and Shaffer, H.B. In press. Fourteen nuclear genes provide phylogenetic resolution for difficult nodes in the turtle tree of life. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: in press, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.11.005.

 

Barrio-Amorós, C.L. and Narbaiza, I. 2008. Die Schildkröten des Bundesstaates Amazonas (Venezuela). Radiata 17(1):2–20.

Beheregaray, L.B., Ciofi, C., Caccone, A., Gibbs, J.P., and Powell, J.R. 2003. Genetic divergence, phylogeography and conservation units of giant tortoises from Santa Cruz and Pinzón, Galápagos Islands. Conservation Genetics 4:31–46.

Bour, R. 1980. Essai sur la taxinomie des Testudinidae actuels (Reptilia, Chelonii). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (4)2A:541–546.

Bour, R. 1984. Les tortues terrestres géantes des îles de l’Océan Indien occidental: données géographiques, taxinomiques et phylogénétiques. In: Broin, F. de., and Jiménez–Fuentes, E. (Eds.). Studia Geologica Salmanticensia Vol. Esp. 1. Studia Palaeocheloniologica 1:17–76.

Bour, R. 2006a. Types of Podocnemidae in the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Emys 13(1):27–40.

Bour, R. 2006b. Identity of Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 and rediscovery of the type specimen. Emys 13(4):12–23.

Bour, R. 2008. August Friedrich Schweigger (1783–1821). In: Bauer, A.M. (Ed.). The Life and Herpetological Contributions of August Friedrich Schweigger (1783–1821). Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, pp. 7–54.

Bour, R. and Ohler, A. 2008. Chersine Merrem, 1820 and Chersina Gray, 1831: a nomenclatural survey. Zootaxa 1752:66–68.

Bour, R., Pritchard, P., Cheke, A., Collie, J., Arnold, E.N., Meylan, P.A., Bury, R.B., Dodd, C.K., Jr., Kraus, O., McCarthy, C., Fleischer-Dogley, F., et al., Casale, P., Gaffney, E.S., Tatayah, V., Jones, C., Reynolds, R.P., Howell, K.M., Ng, P.K.L., Chellam, R., Palkovacs, E.P., and Gerlach, J. 2009. Comments on the proposed conservation of usage of Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 (currently Geochelone (Aldabrachelys) gigantea; Reptilia, Testudines) (Case 3463; see BZN 66: 34–50, 80–87). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 66(2):169–186.

Bowen, B.W. and Karl, S.A. 2007. Population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles. Molecular Ecology 16(23):4886–4907.

Branch, W. 2008. Tortoises, Terrapins and Turtles of Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publ., 128 pp.

Broin, F. de. 1988. Les tortues et le Gondwana. Examen des rapports entre le fractionnement du Gondwana et la dispersion géographique des tortues pleurodires à partir du Crétacé. Studia Palaeocheloniologica 2:103–142.

Caccone, A., Gibbs, J.P., Ketmaier, V., Suatoni, E., and Powell, J.R. 1999. Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galápagos tortoises. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96:13223–13228.

Caccone, A., Gentile, G., Gibbs, J.P., Fritts, T.H., Snell, H.L., Betts, J., and Powell, J.R. 2002. Phylogeography and history of giant Galápagos tortoises. Evolution 56(10):2052–2066.

Chandler, C.H. and Janzen, F.J. 2009. The phylogenetic position of the snapping turtles (Chelydridae) based on nucleotide sequence data. Copeia 2009:209–213.

Chiari, Y., Hyseni, C., Fritts, T.H., Glaberman, S., Marquez, C., Gibbs, J.P., Claude, J., and Caccone, A. 2009. Morphometrics parallel genetics in a newly discovered and endangered taxon of Galápagos tortoise. PLoS One 4(7):e6272, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006272.

Ciofi, C., Wilson, G.A., Beheregaray, L.B., Marquez, C., Gibbs, J.P., Tapia, W., Snell, H.L., Caccone, A., and Powell, J.R. 2006. Phylogeographic history and gene flow among giant Galápagos tortoises on southern Isabela Island. Genetics 172:1727–1744.

Daniels, S.R., Hofmeyr, M.D., Henen, B.T., and Crandall, K.A. 2007. Living with the genetic signature of Miocene induced change: evidence from the phylogeographic structure of the endemic angulate tortoise Chersina angulata. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45:915–926.

David, P. 1994. Liste des reptiles actuels du monde. I. Chelonii. Dumerilia 1:7–127.

Echelle, A.A., Hackler, J.C., Lack, J.B., Ballard, S.R., Roman, J., Fox, S.F., Leslie, D.M., Jr., and Van Den Bussche, R.A. 2009. Conservation genetics of the alligator snapping turtle: cytonuclear evidence of range-wide bottleneck effects and unusually pronounced geographic structure. Conservation Genetics, doi:10.1007/s10592-009-9966-1.

Ernst, C.H. and Barbour, R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 313 pp.

Feldman, C.R. and Parham, J.F. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics of emydine turtles: taxonomic revision and evolution of shell kinesis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22(3):388-398.

Feldman, C.R. and Parham, J.F. 2004. Molecular systematics of Old World stripe-necked turtles (Testudines: Mauremys). Asiatic Herpetological Research 10:28–37.

Frazier, J. 2006. A neotype for the Aldabra tortoise, Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812. Herpetological Review 37:275–280.

Frazier, J. 2009. Case 3463: Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 (currently Geochelone (Aldabrachelys) gigantea; Reptilia, Testudines): proposed conservation of usage of the specific name by maintenance of a designated neotype, and suppression of Testudo dussumieri Gray, 1831 (currently Dipsochelys dussumieri). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 66(1):34–50.

Fritts, T.H. 1983. Morphometrics of Galapagos tortoises: evolutionary implications. In: Bowman, R.I. and Leviton, A.E. (Eds.). Patterns of Evolution in Galapagos Organisms. San Francisco: American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 107–122.

Fritz, U. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2007. When genes meet nomenclature: tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone. Zoology 110:298–307.

Fritz, U. and Havas, P. 2007. Checklist of chelonians of the world. Vertebrate Zoology 57(2):149–368.

Fritz, U. and Kraus, O. 2008. Comments on “Chersine Merrem, 1820 and Chersina Gray, 1831: a nomenclatural survey by Bour and Ohler, Zootaxa, 1752: 66–68”. Zootaxa 1893:65–68.

Fritz, U., Ayaz, D., Buschbom, J., Kami, H.G., Mazanaeva, L.F., Aloufi, A.A., Auer, M., Rifai, L., Silic, T., and Hundsdörfer, A.K. 2008. Go east: phylogeographies of Mauremys caspica and M. rivulata – discordance of morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear genomic markers and rare hybridization. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21:527–540.

Fritz, U., Auer, M., Chirikova, M.A., Duysebayeva, T.N., Eremchenko, V.K., Kami, H.G., Kashkarov, R.D., Masroor, R., Moodley, Y., Pindrani, A., Široký, P., and Hundsdörfer, A.K. 2009a. Mitochondrial diversity of the widespread Central Asian steppe tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii Gray, 1844): implications for taxonomy and relocation of confiscated tortoises. Amphibia-Reptilia 30:245–257.

Fritz, U., Ayaz, D., Hundsdörfer, A.K., Kotenko, T., Guicking, D., Wink, M., Tok, C.V., Çiçek, K., and Buschbom, J. 2009b. Mitochondrial diversity of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) in Anatolia and the Ponto-Caspian Region: multiple old refuges, hotspot of extant diversification and critically endangered endemics. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 9(2):100–114.

Fritz, U., Harris, D.J., Fahd, S., Rouag, R., Graciá Martínez, E., Giménez Casalduero, A., Siroky, P., Kalboussi, M., Jdeidi, T.B., and Hundsdörfer, A.K. 2009c. Mitochondrial phylogeography of Testudo graeca in the Western Mediterranean: old complex divergence in North Africa and recent arrival in Europe. Amphibia-Reptilia 30:63–80.

Gerlach, J. and Bour, R. 2003. Morphology of hatchling giant tortoises. Radiata 12:11–12.

Gerlach, J. and Canning, K.L. 1998. Taxonomy of Indian Ocean giant tortoises (Dipsochelys). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(1):3–19.

Gong, S., Shi, H., Mo, Y., Auer, M., Vargas-Ramírez, M., Hundsdörfer, A.K., and Fritz, U. 2009. Phylogeography of the endangered black-breasted leaf turtle (Geoemyda spengleri) and conservation implications for other chelonians. Amphibia-Reptilia 30:57–62.

Grandidier, A. 1868. Sur les découvertes zoologiques faites récemment à Madagascar. Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. Paris 10:375–378.

Hirayama, R., Kaneko, N., and Okazaki, H. 2007. Ocadia nipponica, a new species of aquatic turtle (Testudines: Testudinoidea: Geoemydidae) from the Middle Pleistocene of Chiba Prefecture, central Japan. Paleontological Research 11:1–19.

Hitschfeld, E., Auer, M., and Fritz, U. 2008. Phalangeal formulae and ontogenetic variation of carpal morphology in Testudo horsfieldii and T. hermanni. Amphibia-Reptilia 29:93–99.

Hofmeyr, M.D. 2009. Chersina angulata (Schweigger 1812) – angulate tortoise, South African bowsprit tortoise. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 030.1–030.6, doi:10.3854/crm.5.030.angulata.v1.2009, //iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1963. Opinion 660. Suppression under the plenary powers of seven specific names of turtles (Reptilia, Testudines). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 20:187–190.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1987. Opinion 1463. De Lacépède, 1788–1789, Histoire Naturelle des Serpens and later editions: rejected as a non-binomial work. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 44(4):265–267.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. London: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, 306 pp.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2005. Opinion 2104 (Case 3226). Lacepède, B.G.É. de la V., 1788, Histoire Naturelle de Quadrupèdes Ovipares: rejected as a non-binomial work. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 62(1):55.

Iverson, J.B. 1992. A Revised Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World. Richmond, IN: Privately printed, 363 pp.

Iverson, J.B., Meylan, P.A., and Seidel, M.E. 2008. Turtles. In: Crother, B. (Ed.). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circulars No. 37, pp. 67–74.

Jackson, J.T., Starkey, D.E., Guthrie, R.W., and Forstner, M.R.J. 2008. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of extant species of the genus Trachemys with resulting taxonomic implications. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 7(1):131–135.

Le, M. and McCord, W.P. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical history of the genus Rhinoclemmys Fitzinger, 1835 and the monophyly of the turtle family Geoemydidae (Testudines: Testudinoidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153:751–767.

McCord, W.P., Joseph-Ouni, M., and Tabaka, C. 2005. Chelonian illustrations #18: African hinge-back tortoises. Reptilia (GB) (Barcelona) 38:71–74.

Mittermeier, R.A. and Wilson, R.A. 1974. Redescription of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824), an Amazonian pelomedusid turtle. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 28(8):147–162.

Okayama, T., Díaz-Fernández, R., Baba, Y., Halim, M., Abe, O., Azeno, N., and Koike, H. 1999. Genetic diversity of the hawksbill turtle in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean regions. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(2):362–367.

Palkovacs, E.P., Gerlach, J., and Caccone, A. 2002. The evolutionary origin of Indian Ocean tortoises (Dipsochelys). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24:216–227.

Palkovacs, E.P., Marschner, M., Ciofi, C., Gerlach, J., and Caccone, A. 2003. Are the native giant tortoise from the Seychelles really extinct? A genetic perspective based on mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Ecology 12:1403–1413.

Parham, J.F. 2008. Rediscovery of an “extinct” Galapagos tortoise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105:15227–15228.

Parham, J.F. and Feldman, C.R. 2002. Generic revisions of emydine turtles. Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 6:28–30.

Poulakakis, N., Glaberman, S., Russello, M., Beheregaray, L.B., Ciofi, C., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2008. Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Galápagos tortoise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 105:15464–15469, doi:10.1073.pnas.0805340105.

Praschag, P., Hundsdörfer, A.K., and Fritz, U. 2009b. Further specimens and phylogenetic position of the recently described leaf turtle species Cyclemys gemeli (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Zootaxa 2008:29–37.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 1996. The Galápagos Tortoises: Nomenclatural and Survival Status. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 1, 85 pp.

Rhodin, A.G.J. and Carr, J.L. 2009. A quarter millenium of uses and misuses of the turtle name Testudo scabra: identification of the type specimens of T. scabra Linnaeus 1758 (= Rhinoclemmys punctularia) and T. scripta Thunberg in Schoepff 1792 (= Trachemys scripta scripta). Zootaxa 2226:1–18.

Rhodin, A.G.J., van Dijk, P.P., and Parham, J.F. 2008. Turtles of the world: annotated checklist of taxonomy and synonymy. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., and Iverson, J.B. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 000.1–000.38, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v1.2008, //iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.

Rohilla, M.S., Rao, R.J., and Tiwari, P.K. 2009. Enzyme polymorphism in Indian freshwater soft shell turtle Lissemys punctata. Acta Herpetologica 4(1):15–28.

Roman, J., Santhuff, S.D., Moler, P.E., and Bowen, B.W. 1999. Population structure and cryptic evolutionary units in the alligator snapping turtle. Conservation Biology 13(1):135-142.

Russello, M.A., Glaberman, S., Gibbs, J.P., Marquez, C., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2005. A cryptic taxon of Galápagos tortoise in conservation peril. Biological Letters 1:287–290.

Russello, M.A., Beheregaray, L.B., Gibbs, J.P., Fritts, T., Havill, N., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2007. Lonesome George is not alone among Galápagos tortoises. Current Biology 17(9):R317–R318.

Seidel, M.E. 2002. Taxonomic observations on extant species and subspecies of slider turtles, genus Trachemys. Journal of Herpetology 36(2):285–292.

Smith, H.M. and Chiszar, D. 2006. Dilemma of name-recognition: why and when to use new combinations of scientific names. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 1(1):6–8.

Spinks, P.Q. and Shaffer, H.B. 2009. Conflicting mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies for the widely disjunct Emys (Testudines: Emydidae) species complex, and what they tell us about biogeography and hybridization. Systematic Biology 58(1):1–20.

Spinks, P.Q., Shaffer, H.B., Iverson, J.B., and McCord, W.P. 2004. Phylogenetic hypothesis for the turtle family Geoemydidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32:164–182.

Spinks, P.Q., Thomson, R.C., and Shaffer, H.B. 2009a. A reassessment of Cuora cyclornata Blanck, McCord and Le, 2006 (Testudines, Geoemydidae) and a plea for taxonomic stability. Zootaxa 2018:58–68.

Spinks, P.Q., Thomson, R.C., Lovely, G.A., and Shaffer, H.B. 2009b. Assessing what is needed to resolve a molecular phylogeny: simulations and empirical data from emydid turtles. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:56 doi:10.1186/1471–2148–9–56.

Takahashi, A., Hirayama, R., Alcala, A.C., Carretero, M.A., Danilov, I.G., Ernst, C.H., Honegger, R., Lovich, J.E., Malonza, P.K., Moravec, J., Penny, M., Praschag, P., Siroky, P., Spinks, P.Q., Griffiths, C., Hansen, D., Bauerfeld, K., Glaw, F., Fong, J.F., Fritz, U., Kraus, O., Hailey, A., Vences, M., Wanless, R.M., Williams, E.H., Jr., Nieves-Rivera, A.M., Bunkley-Williams, L., Grimm, U., Iverson, J.B., Mortimer, J.A., Buskirk, J., Morgan, J., Schmidt, F., and Miller, J. 2009. Comments on the proposed conservation of usage of Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 (currently Geochelone (Aldabrachelys) gigantea; Reptilia, Testudines) (Case 3463; see BZN 66: 34–50, 80–87, 169–186). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 66(3):274–290.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Bickham, J.W., Parham, J.F., Philippen, H.D., Rhodin, A.G.J., Shaffer, H.B., Spinks, P.Q., and van Dijk, P.P.]. 2007a. Turtle taxonomy: methodology, recommendations, and guidelines. In: Shaffer, H.B., FitzSimmons, N.N., Georges, A., and Rhodin, A.G.J. (Eds.). Defining Turtle Diversity: Proceedings of a Workshop on Genetics, Ethics, and Taxonomy of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 4, pp. 73–84.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Bickham, J.W., Iverson, J.B., Parham, J.F., Philippen, H.D., Rhodin, A.G.J., Shaffer, H.B., Spinks, P.Q., and van Dijk, P.P.]. 2007b. An annotated list of modern turtle terminal taxa with comments on areas of taxonomic instability and recent change. In: Shaffer, H.B., FitzSimmons, N.N., Georges, A., and Rhodin, A.G.J. (Eds.). Defining Turtle Diversity: Proceedings of a Workshop on Genetics, Ethics, and Taxonomy of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 4, pp. 173–199.

Vaillant, L. 1885b. Remarques complémentaires sur les tortues gigantesque de Madagascar. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 100:874–877.

Vargas-Ramírez, M., Castaño-Mora, O.V., and Fritz, U. 2008. Molecular phylogeny and divergence times of ancient South American and Malagasy river turtles (Testudines: Pleurodira: Podocnemididae). Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 8:388–398.

Velo-Antón, G., García-París, M., and Cordero Rivera, A. 2008. Patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation in Iberian populations of Emys orbicularis (Emydidae): conservation implications. Conservation Genetics 9:1263–1274.

Zug, G.R., Beaver, K., Bjorndal, K.A., Crumly, C.R., Das, I., Diamond, A.W., Hambler, C., Leuteritz, T., Shah, N.J., Murphy, J.B., Swingland, I.R., Bourn, D., Turkozan, O., Savage, J.M., Caccone, G., Parham, J.F., and Rhodin, A.G.J. 2009. Comments on the proposed conservation of usage of Testudo gigantea Schweigger, 1812 (currently Geochelone (Aldabrachelys) gigantea; Reptilia, Testudines) (Case 3463; see BZN 66: 34). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 66(1):80–87.


 

Additional Literature Cited
in TTWG 2010

 

Bour, R. 2006. Types of Podocnemidae in the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Emys 13(1):27–40.

 

Bhullar, B.S. and Bever, G.S. 2009. An archosaur-like laterosphenoid in early turtles (Reptilia: Pantestudines). Breviora 518:1–11.

Buhlmann, K.A., Akre, T.S.B., Iverson, J.B., Karapatakis, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Georges, A., Rhodin, A.G.J., van Dijk, P.P., and Gibbons, J.W. 2009. A global analysis of tortoise and freshwater turtle distributions with identification of priority conservation areas. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 8(2):116–149.

Burbidge, A.A. 1967. The biology of south-western Australian tortoises. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Western Australia.

CITES. 2010. Interpretation and implementation of the Convention. Trade control and marking. Standard nomenclature. CITES Document CoP15 Doc. 35, 33 pp.

Cogger, H.G., Cameron, E.E., and Cogger, H.M. 1983. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 1. Amphibia and Reptilia. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 313 pp.

Collins, J.T., Collins, S.L., and Taggart, T.W. 2010. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles in Kansas. Eagle Mountain Publishing, 312 pp.

Cowan, C.F. 1969. Notes on Griffith’s Animal Kingdom of Cuvier (1824-1835). Journal of the Society of Bibliography of Natural History 5:137–140.

Daniels, S.R., Hofmeyr, M.D., Henen, B.T., and Baard, E.H.W. 2010. Systematics and phylogeography of a threatened tortoise, the speckled padloper. Animal Conservation 13:237–246.

Darevsky, I.S. and Mertens, R. 1973. Zwei unveröffentlichte Schildkrötentafeln von Pallas. Salamandra 9(3/4):99–102.

deBraga, M. and Rieppel, O. 1997. Reptile phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120:281–354.

Dubois, A. and Bour, R. 2010a. The nomenclatural status of the nomina of amphibians and reptiles created by Garsault (1764), with a parsimonious solution to an old nomenclatural problem regarding the genus Bufo (Amphibia, Anura), comments on the taxonomy of this genus, and comments on some nomina created by Laurenti (1768). Zootaxa 2447:1–52.

Dubois, A. and Bour, R. 2010b. The distinction between family-series and class-series nomina in zoological nomenclature, with emphasis on the nomina created by Batsch (1788, 1789) and on the higher nomenclature of turtles. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 57(2):149–171.

Ernst, C.H. and Lovich, J.E. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Second Edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 827 pp.

Ernst, C.H., Laemmerzahl, A.F., and Creque, T.R. 2006. A review of morphological and pattern variation in the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, in Missouri, USA, with an alternate hypothesis of the origin of Chrysemys picta marginata. Herpetological Bulletin 95:6–15.

Fritz, U. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2007. When genes meet nomenclature: tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone. Zoology 110:298–307.

Fritz, U. and Havas, P. 2007. Checklist of chelonians of the world. Vertebrate Zoology 57(2):149–368.

Fritz, U., Auer, M., Chirikova, M.A., Duysebayeva, T.N., Eremchenko, V.K., Kami, H.G., Kashkarov, R.D., Masroor, R., Moodley, Y., Pindrani, A., Široký, P., and Hundsdörfer, A.K. 2009. Mitochondrial diversity of the widespread Central Asian steppe tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii Gray, 1844): implications for taxonomy and relocation of confiscated tortoises. Amphibia–Reptilia 30:245–257.

Fritz, U., Daniels, S.R., Hofmeyr, M.D., González, J., Barrio-Amorós, C.L., Siroky, P., Hundsdörfer, A.K., and Stuckas, H. 2010a. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecies of the wide-ranging sub-Saharan leopard tortoise Stigmochelys pardalis (Testudines: Testudinidae) – a case study for the pitfalls of pseudogenes and GenBank sequences. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2010.00565.x.

Fritz, U., Gong, S., Auer, M., Kuchling, G., Schneeweiss, N., and Hundsdörfer, A.K. 2010b. The world’s economically most important chelonians represent a diverse species complex (Testudines: Trionychidae: Pelodiscus). Organisms Diversity and Evolution, doi: 10.1007/s13127-010-0007-1.

Georges, A. and Adams, M. 1992. A phylogeny for Australian chelid turtles based on allozyme electrophoresis. Australian Journal of Zoology 40:453–476.

Georges, A. and Thomson, S. 2006. Evolution and zoogeography of Australian freshwater turtles. In: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M., and Lee, M.S.Y. (Eds.). Evolution and Biogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Sydney: Australian Scientific Publishing, pp. 291–308.

Georges, A. and Thomson, S. 2010. Diversity of Australasian freshwater turtles, with an annotated synonymy and keys to species. Zootaxa 2496:1–37.

Georges, A., Birrell, J., Saint, K.M., McCord, W., and Donnellan, S.C. 1998. A phylogeny for side-necked turtles (Chelonia: Pleurodira) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence variation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 67:213–246.

Georges, A., Adams, M., and McCord, W. 2002. Electrophoretic delineation of species boundaries within the genus Chelodina (Testudines: Chelidae) of Australia, New Guinea and Indonesia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 134:401–421.

Goode, J. 1967. Freshwater Tortoises of Australia and New Guinea (in the Family Chelidae). Melbourne: Lansdowne Press, 154 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1873 [“1872”]. List of the Books, Memoirs, and Miscellaneous Papers by Dr. John Edward Gray, F.R.S., with a few Historical Notes. London: Private Distribution, 55 pp.

Gregory, S.M.S. 2010. The two ‘editions’ of Duméril’s Zoologie analytique, and the potential confusion caused by Froriep’s translation Analytische Zoologie. Zoological Bibliography 1(1):6–8.

Hoffmann, M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Angulo, A., Böhm, M., Brooks, T.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Carpenter, K.E., Chanson, J., Collen, B., Cox, N.A., Darwall, W.R.T., Dulvy, N.K., Harrison, L.R., Katariya, V., Pollock, C.M., Quader, S., Richman, N.I., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Tognelli, M.F., Vié, J.-C., Aguiar, J.M., Allen, D.J., Allen, G.R., Amori, G., Ananjeva, N.B., Andreone, F., Andrew, P., Aquino Ortiz, A.L., Baillie, J.E.M., Baldi, R., Bell, B.D., Biju, S.D., Bird, J.P., Black-Decima, P., Blanc, J.J., Bolaños, F., Bolivar-G., W., Burfield, I.J., Burton, J.A., Capper, D.R., Castro, F., Catullo, G., Cavanagh, R.D., Channing, A., Chao, N.L., Chenery, A.M., Chiozza, F., Clausnitzer, V., Collar, N.J., Collett, L.C., Collette, B.B., Cortez Fernandez, C.F., Craig, M.T., Crosby, M.J., Cumberlidge, N., Cuttelod, A., Derocher, A.E., Diesmos, A.C., Donaldson, J.S., Duckworth, J.W., Dutson, G., Dutta, S.K., Emslie, R.H., Farjon, A., Fowler, S., Freyhof, J., Garshelis, D.L., Gerlach, J., Gower, D.J., Grant, T.D., Hammerson, G.A., Harris, R.B., Heaney, L.R., Hedges, S.B., Hero, J.-M., Hughes, B., Hussain, S.A., Icochea M., J., Inger, R.F., Ishii, N., Iskandar, D.T., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kaneko, Y., Kottelat, M., Kovacs, K.M., Kuzmin, S.L., Marca, E.L., Lamoreux, J.F., Lau, M.W.N., Lavilla, E.O., Leus, K., Lewison, R.L., Lichtenstein, G., Livingstone, S.R., Lukoschek, V., Mallon, D.P., McGowan, P.J.K., McIvor, A., Moehlman, P.D., Molur, S., Alonso, A.M., Musick, J.A., Nowell, K., Nussbaum, R.A., Olech, W., Orlov, N.L., Papenfuss, T.J., Parra-Olea, G., Perrin, W.F., Polidoro, B.A., Pourkazemi, M., Racey, P.A., Ragle, J.S., Ram, M., Rathbun, G., Reynolds, R.P., Rhodin, A.G.J., Richards, S.J., Rodríguez, L.O., Ron, S.R., Rondinini, C., Rylands, A.B., Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y., Sanciangco, J.C., Sanders, K.L., Santos-Barrera, G., Schipper, J., Self-Sullivan, C., Shi, Y., Shoemaker, A., Short, F.T., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Silvano, D.L., Smith, K.G., Smith, A.T., Snoeks, J., Stattersfield, A.J., Symes, A.J., Taber, A.B., Talukdar, B.K., Temple, H.J., Timmins, R., Tobias, J.A., Tsytsulina, K., Tweddle, D., Ubeda, C., Valenti, S.V., van Dijk, P.P., Veiga, L.M., Veloso, A., Wege, D.C., Wilkinson, M., Williamson, E.A., Xie, F., Young, B.E., Akçakaya, H.R., Bennun, L., Blackburn, T.M., Boitani, L., Dublin, H.T., Fonseca, G.A.B. da, Gascon, C., Lacher, T.E., Jr., Mace, G.M., Mainka, S.A., McNeely, J.A., Mittermeier, R.A., Reid, G.M., Rodriguez, J.P., Rosenberg, A.A., Samways, M.J., Smart, J., Stein, B.A., and Stuart, S.N. 2010. The impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates. Science 330:1503–1509.

Hofmeyr, M.D., Boycott, R.C., and Baard, E.H.W. In press. Family Testudinidae. In: Bates, M.F., Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M., Burger, M., Marais, J., Alexander, G.J., and De Villiers, M. (Eds.). Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Pretoria: South African Biodiversity Institute.

Hoogmoed, M.S., Gassó Miracle, M.E., and van den Hoek Ostende, L.W. 2010. Type specimens of recent and fossil Testudines and Crocodylia in the collections of the Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden 84(8):159–199.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1963. Opinion 660. Suppression under the plenary powers of seven specific names of turtles (Reptilia, Testudines). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 20:187–190.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. London: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, 306 pp.

Iverson, J.B. 1992. A Revised Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World. Richmond, IN: Privately printed, 363 pp.

Iverson, J.B., Meylan, P.A., and Seidel, M.E. 2008. Testudines—Turtles. In: Crother, B.I. (Ed.). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circulars No. 37, pp. 67–74.

Kirsch, J.A.W. and Mayer, G.C. 1998. The platypus is not a rodent: DNA hybridization, amniote phylogeny and the palimpsest theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 353(B):1221–1237.

Kraus, F. 2009. Alien Reptiles and Amphibians. A Scientific Compendium and Analysis. Springer Verlag, 563 pp.

Kuchling, G. 1988. Gonadal cycles of the Western Australian long-necked turtles Chelodina oblonga and Chelodina steindachneri (Chelonia: Chelidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 14:189–198.

Kuchling, G. 2010. Taxonomy and nomenclature of the longneck turtle (genus Chelodina) from south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25:449–454.

Le, M.D. and Pritchard, P.C.H. 2009. Genetic variability of the critically endangered softshell turtle, Rafetus swinhoei: a preliminary report. Proceedings of the First Vietnamese National Symposium on Reptiles and Amphibians, pp. 84–92.

McAllister, C.T., Forstner, M.R.J., and Fuller, J.P. 2007. Second report of the southern painted turtle, Chrysemys dorsalis (Testudines: Emydidae), from Texas, with comments on its genetic relationship to other populations. Texas Journal of Science 59(2):155–160.

Métrailler, S. and Le Gratiet, G. 1996. Tortues continentales de Guyane française. Continental Turtles of the French Guiana. Martigny, Switzerland: Pillet SA, 127 pp.

Modesto, S.P. and Anderson, J.S. 2004. The phylogenetic definition of Reptilia. Systematic Biology 53(5):815–821.

Nowak-Kemp, M. and Fritz, U. 2010. Chelonian type specimens at the Oxford University Museum. Zootaxa 2604:1–19.

Pedall, I., Fritz, U., Stuckas, H., Valdeón, A., and Wink, M. 2010. Gene flow across secondary contact zones of the Emys orbicularis complex in the Western Mediterranean and evidence for extinction and re-introduction of pond turtles on Corsica and Sardinia (Testudines: Emydidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2010.00572.x.

Rhodin, A.G.J., van Dijk, P.P., and Parham, J.F. 2008. Turtles of the world: annotated checklist of taxonomy and synonymy. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., and Iverson, J.B. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 000.1–000.38, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v1.2008, //iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.

Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Carr, J.L., Mittermeier, R.A., Rodríguez-Mahecha, J.V., Mast, R.B., Vogt, R.C., Rhodin, A.G.J., De La Ossa-Velásquez, J., Rueda, J.N., and Mittermeier, C.G. 2007. Las Tortugas y los Cocodrilianos de los Países Andinos del Trópico. Bogotá, Colombia: Editorial Panamericana, Formas e Impresos, Serie de Guías Tropicales de Campo No. 6, Conservación Internacional, 538 pp.

Sawyer, F.C. 1953. The dates of issue of J.E. Gray’s “Illustrations of Indian Zoology” (London, 1830-1835). Journal of the Society of Bibliography of Natural History 3(1):48–55.

Spinks, P.Q. and Shaffer, H.B. 2009. Conflicting mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies for the widely disjunct Emys (Testudines: Emydidae) species complex, and what they tell us about biogeography and hybridization. Systematic Biology 58(1):1–20.

Spinks, P.Q., Thomson, R.C., Lovely, G.A., and Shaffer, H.B. 2009. Assessing what is needed to resolve a molecular phylogeny: simulations and empirical data from emydid turtles. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:56 doi:10.1186/1471–2148–9–56.

Spinks, P.Q., Thomson, R.C., and Shaffer, H.B. 2010. Nuclear gene phylogeography reveals the historical legacy of an ancient inland sea on lineages of the western pond turtle, in California. Molecular Ecology 19:542–556.

Starkey, D.E., Shaffer, H.B., Burke, R.L., Forstner, M.R.J., Iverson, J.B., Janzen, F.J., Rhodin, A.G.J., and Ultsch, G.R. 2003. Molecular systematics, phylogeography, and the effects of Pleistocene glaciation in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) complex. Evolution 57(1):119–128.

Thomson, S.A. 2006. ICZN Case 3351. Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines): proposed precedence over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 63(3):187–193.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Bickham, J.W., Parham, J.F., Philippen, H.D., Rhodin, A.G.J., Shaffer, H.B., Spinks, P.Q., and van Dijk, P.P.]. 2007a. Turtle taxonomy: methodology, recommendations, and guidelines. In: Shaffer, H.B., FitzSimmons, N.N., Georges, A., and Rhodin, A.G.J. (Eds.). Defining Turtle Diversity: Proceedings of a Workshop on Genetics, Ethics, and Taxonomy of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 4, pp. 73–84.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Bickham, J.W., Iverson, J.B., Parham, J.F., Philippen, H.D., Rhodin, A.G.J., Shaffer, H.B., Spinks, P.Q., and van Dijk, P.P.]. 2007b. An annotated list of modern turtle terminal taxa with comments on areas of taxonomic instability and recent change. In: Shaffer, H.B., FitzSimmons, N.N., Georges, A., and Rhodin, A.G.J. (Eds.). Defining Turtle Diversity: Proceedings of a Workshop on Genetics, Ethics, and Taxonomy of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 4, pp. 173–199.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Rhodin, A.G.J., Parham, J.F., van Dijk, P.P., and Iverson, J.B.]. 2009. Turtles of the world: annotated checklist of taxonomy and synonymy, 2009 update, with conservation status summary. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 000.39–000.84, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v2.2009, //www.iucn–tftsg.org/cbftt/.

Vargas-Ramírez, M., Maran, J., and Fritz, U. 2010a. Red- and yellow-footed tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonaria and C. denticulata (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae), in South American savannahs and forests: do their phylogeographies reflect distinct habitats? Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 10:161–172.

Vargas-Ramírez, M., Vences, M., Branch, W.R., Daniels, S.R., Glaw, F., Hofmeyr, M.D., Kuchling, G., Maran, J., Papenfuss, T.J., Široky, P., Vieites, D.R., and Fritz, U. 2010b. Deep genealogical lineages in the widely distributed African helmeted terrapin: evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Testudines: Pelomedusidae: Pelomedusa subrufa). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.03.019.

Vinke, S., Vetter, H., Vinke, T., and Vetter, S. 2008. South American Tortoises – Chelonoidis carbonaria, C. denticulata and C. chilensis. Frankfurt am Main: Chimaira verlag, Chelonian Library 3, 360 pp.

Wermuth, H. and Mertens, R. 1961. Schildkröten. Krokodile. Brückenechsen. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 422 pp.

Wermuth, H. and Mertens, R. 1977. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien: Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynchocephalia. Tierreich 100:1–174.

White, A.W., Worthy, T.H., Hawkins, S., Bedford, S., and Spriggs, M. 2010. Megafaunal meiolaniid horned turtles survived until early human settlement in Vanuatu, Southwest Pacific. PNAS 107(41):15512–15516

Wiens, J.J., Kuczynski, C.A., and Stephens, P.A. 2010. Discordant mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies in emydid turtles: implications for speciation and conservation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99:445–461.

Wong, R.A., Fong, J.J., and Papenfuss, T.J. 2010. Phylogeography of the African helmeted terrapin, Pelomedusa subrufa: genetic structure, dispersal, and human introduction. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4)61:575–585.